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## MPLS Connection Cisco Routes

So routes in an MPLS cisco router can have the following codes; the highlighted ones are the most common I see:

Codes:

• L - local
• C - connected
• S - static
• R - RIP
• M - mobile
• B - BGP
• D - EIGRP
• EX - EIGRP external
• O - OSPF
• IA - OSPF inter area
• N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1
• N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
• E1 - OSPF external type 1
• E2 - OSPF external type 2
• i - IS-IS
• su - IS-IS summary
• L1 - IS-IS level-1
• L2 - IS-IS level-2
• ia - IS-IS inter area
• * - candidate default
• U - per-user static route
• o - ODR
• H - NHRP
• l - LISP
• + - replicated route
• % - next hop override

As elsewhere, you can see the routes by:

show ip route

Or you can search for a route by (ie search for routes to 10.116.x.x):

show ip route | incude 116

To add a route to the MPLS router nodes, the route must be added as a STATIC route to the node that is LOCAL to the subnet.

For example, we add a new node to the MPLS network. That new node has the following network as a LOCAL subnet: 10.116.0.10/32.

This network would show as the following:

L        10.116.0.10/32 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/1

The new node also has the following network as a subnet 10.116.15.0/24. The problem is that while the subnet at the location will already know about the subnet, the other locations will not know about the subnet until it is advertised/distributed across the MPLS network routers.

If you try to traceroute a address on the new subnet from a different location, the other routers will not know what to do and bounce the packet to the default route, causing a loop/bounce.

As stated above, to resolve, the STATIC route must be added to the router where the subnet is located:

S        10.116.15.0/24 [1/0] via 10.116.1.1

Once that is added, the other routers will pickup the route as a BGP route:

B        10.116.15.0/24 [20/0] via 10.162.131.38

## Rename Files

Let's say you have a bunch of files to rename. You want to minus the first 10 characters of each file. What's the best way?

It depends.

### Total Commander

My favorite for small-to-medium batches is Total Commander. It understands REGEX and it shows the before-names and after-names before committing the command.

• -highlight the files (they show as red filenames).
• -click FILE > MULTI-RENAME-TOOL (the rename box shows)
• -find RENAME-MASK (in the upper-left).
• -type: [N10-]
• -click START (at the bottom-right).

This should do it!

### Powershell

For powershell, the command will be something like:

### Office365 Endpoints | O365 Endpoints | Azure Endpoints | Microsoft Online Endpoints

From here you have the option to connect to different ENDPOINTS of Office365/AzureAD. The information is the same but data is displayed differently depending on which endpoint is being used.

The ENDPOINTS I use regularly are:

1. OUTLOOK/Exchange-Online
3. MSOnline

### Install Module

To connect to the endpoints, a module must be installed into Powershell. So if this is the first time, depending on the endpoint,use the following

1. Outlook/Exchange-Online: does not need a moduel
3. MSOline: type: Install-Module MSOline

Note that this only has to be done once. After the module is installed into Powershell, it remains.

### Connect to Endpoint

After the module is installed into Powershell, the connection is as follows:

1. OUTLOOK/Exchange-Online: type:
$Session = New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -ConnectionUri https://ps.outlook.com/powershell/ -Credential$LiveCred -Authentication Basic -AllowRedirection
Import-PSSession $Session -AllowClobber 2. AzureAD: Connect-azuread -Credential$LiveCred
3. MSOnline: Connect-MsolService -Credential $LiveCred Which Endpoint Is Best It depends on what you are trying to do. 1. OUTLOOK/Exchange-Online: for the Exchange portion of Office365. Should be easy to determine if it is needed. 2. AzureAD: new endpoint that seems to have development in the works. To me the commands are long and arduous. 3. MSOnline: tried and true as a legacy option that seems to work. ## License Accounts in Office365 | License Accounts in AzureAD As a refresher, get-msoluser and get-azureaduser are similar but provide information differently. This is a case where it seems to be easier to use get-msoluser. To see all accounts: get-msoluser That returns a maximum of 500 results in a command, so you can check with (20000 represents some really high number because 'unlimited' or 'all' doesn't exist): get-msoluser -maxresults 20000 To search for a specific account: get-msoluser -searchstr foo.user To see if accounts are licensed: get-msoluser -maxresults 20000 |where {$_.islicensed -eq $true} To see if accounts are not licensed: get-msoluser -maxresults 1000 |where {$_.islicensed -eq $false} To see an example of the details of a licensed account for ADHOC: get-msoluser -UserPrincipalName <!-- var prefix = 'm&#97;&#105;lt&#111;:'; var suffix = ''; var attribs = ''; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy77462 = 'f&#111;&#111;.&#117;s&#101;r' + '&#64;'; addy77462 = addy77462 + 'd&#111;m&#97;&#105;n' + '&#46;' + 'tld'; document.write( '<a ' + path + '\'' + prefix + addy77462 + suffix + '\'' + attribs + '>' ); document.write( addy77462 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> <!-- document.write( '<span style=\'display: none;\'>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it <!-- document.write( '</' ); document.write( 'span>' ); //--> |fl |findstr /i licen IndirectLicenseErrors : {} IsLicensed : True LicenseAssignmentDetails : {Microsoft.Online.Administration.LicenseAssignmentDetail} LicenseReconciliationNeeded : False Licenses : {foodomain:RIGHTSMANAGEMENT_ADHOC} To see an example of the details of an unlicensed account: get-msoluser -UserPrincipalName <!-- var prefix = 'm&#97;&#105;lt&#111;:'; var suffix = ''; var attribs = ''; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy78156 = 'f&#111;&#111;.&#117;s&#101;r' + '&#64;'; addy78156 = addy78156 + 'd&#111;m&#97;&#105;n' + '&#46;' + 'tld'; document.write( '<a ' + path + '\'' + prefix + addy78156 + suffix + '\'' + attribs + '>' ); document.write( addy78156 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> <!-- document.write( '<span style=\'display: none;\'>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it <!-- document.write( '</' ); document.write( 'span>' ); //--> |fl |findstr /i licen IndirectLicenseErrors : {} IsLicensed : False LicenseAssignmentDetails : {} LicenseReconciliationNeeded : False Licenses : {} To assign a license to an account, you might think that set-msoluser has a key/value but they break it out to set-msoluserlicense (which is weird because there is no get-msoluserlicense). But before that is possible, the account must be set for USAGELOCATION (which is set-msoluser): set-msoluser -UserPrincipalName <!-- var prefix = 'm&#97;&#105;lt&#111;:'; var suffix = ''; var attribs = ''; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy59117 = 'f&#111;&#111;.&#117;s&#101;r' + '&#64;'; addy59117 = addy59117 + 'd&#111;m&#97;&#105;n' + '&#46;' + 'tld'; document.write( '<a ' + path + '\'' + prefix + addy59117 + suffix + '\'' + attribs + '>' ); document.write( addy59117 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> <!-- document.write( '<span style=\'display: none;\'>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it <!-- document.write( '</' ); document.write( 'span>' ); //--> -usagelocation US set-msoluserlicense -UserPrincipalName <!-- var prefix = 'm&#97;&#105;lt&#111;:'; var suffix = ''; var attribs = ''; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy60200 = 'f&#111;&#111;.&#117;s&#101;r' + '&#64;'; addy60200 = addy60200 + 'd&#111;m&#97;&#105;n' + '&#46;' + 'tld'; document.write( '<a ' + path + '\'' + prefix + addy60200 + suffix + '\'' + attribs + '>' ); document.write( addy60200 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> <!-- document.write( '<span style=\'display: none;\'>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it <!-- document.write( '</' ); document.write( 'span>' ); //--> -AddLicenses "foodomain:TEAMS_COMMERCIAL_TRIAL" Likewise for removing the license: set-msoluserlicense -UserPrincipalName <!-- var prefix = 'm&#97;&#105;lt&#111;:'; var suffix = ''; var attribs = ''; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy76252 = 'f&#111;&#111;.&#117;s&#101;r' + '&#64;'; addy76252 = addy76252 + 'd&#111;m&#97;&#105;n' + '&#46;' + 'tld'; document.write( '<a ' + path + '\'' + prefix + addy76252 + suffix + '\'' + attribs + '>' ); document.write( addy76252 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> <!-- document.write( '<span style=\'display: none;\'>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it <!-- document.write( '</' ); document.write( 'span>' ); //--> -removeLicenses "foodomain:TEAMS_COMMERCIAL_TRIAL" What options are available for the license key? Glad you asked. Here is how to get the options for your tenant: Get-MsolAccountSku If something doesn't show, it is because it has not been provisioned. ## Exchange 2013; Get Accounts that Someone Else Has Access To So it is easy to find out what USER is a member of what GROUP. Or vice-versa. What is not as easily available is finding out what USER has access to another account. Or another way of putting it is; how to find mailboxes that have additional permissions than just their own? Here's how: Get-Mailbox | Get-MailboxPermission | where {$_.user.tostring() -ne "NT AUTHORITY\SELF" -and $_.IsInherited -eq$false} | Select Identity,User,@{Name='Access Rights';Expression={[string]::join(', ', $_.AccessRights)}} Or if you need to create an Excel document out of it: Get-Mailbox | Get-MailboxPermission | where {$_.user.tostring() -ne "NT AUTHORITY\SELF" -and $_.IsInherited -eq$false} | Select Identity,User,@{Name='Access Rights';Expression={[string]::join(', ', $_.AccessRights)}} | Export-Csv -NoTypeInformation mailboxpermissions-v1.csv Notes: This is found in the article for Remove Mailbox Permissions That Are Not Inherited but the info might be hidden there. ## Delete User from Azure AD For whatever reason, I had an account in Azure AD that picked up the @foobar.onmicrosoft.com domain rather than the actual local domain. I suspect this happened because there was already an account manually created as a Global Admin so when the AD sync was happening, it could not create an account and defaulted to the onmicrosoft.com account. In any regard, you can delete the account on Azure AD without affecting the Local AD. After the deletion, sync back to Azure AD from the Local AD. These are the steps: ### Connect to Office365/ExchangeOnline Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned $LiveCred = Get-Credential

$Session = New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -ConnectionUri https://ps.outlook.com/powershell/ -Credential$LiveCred -Authentication Basic -AllowRedirection

### Get the User / Delete the User

get-msoluser -searchstring foouser

get-MsolUser -ObjectId 33f85584-acde-4c23-aa00-d8ab654a258b

remove-MsolUser -ObjectId 33f85584-acde-4c23-aa00-d8ab654a258b

Connect-azuread -Credential $LiveCred get-AzureADUser get-azureaduser -searchstring fooname ### Permanently Delete Go to Azure Acive Directory > Users > Deleted Users Select User Permanently Delete ### Sync from Local AD Then to sync back from the Local AD. -connect directly to the system that has Azure AD Connect. Check the schedule: Get-ADSyncScheduler Run the sync: Start-ADSyncSyncCycle -PolicyType Delta ### Notes get-msoluser and get-azureaduser are pretty much the same in that they will provide the same basic details. They are different in that they connect to different endpoints of the service and therefore provide similar information but provide it differently. In short, get-msoluser is the 'old way' and get-azureaduser is the 'new way.' The problem is that the old way is easier to use and not everything is in the new way. ## Redirect Entire Domain Of course you can use the DNS at the REGISTRAR (GoDaddy, Enom, etc) level but what if you have access to the server but not the domain? Two files are needed: 1. index.php 2. .htaccess (don't forget the leading '.' and there are no extensions) The contents of the index.php file to redirect to the new web site: <?php  header('Location: https://foo.tld'); ?> The contents of the .htacess file to redirect any phantom links to the index page: Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch  RewriteEngine On  RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f  RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d RewriteRule . /index.php [L] ## GPO gpresult rsop | gpupdate All this time and I never covered this... GPO, gpupdate, gpresult, rsop ### GPO You know GPO, right? The Default Domain Policy is the applied for the entire domain and should override the rest. Put the password stuff in this policy but nothing else. ### GPUPDATE The GPO's will apply automatically but if you need to do it now: gpupdate /force ### GPRESULT To see what is being applied, type: gpresult /r It shows what server the system is connecting to, what GPO's are applying, what GPO's are not applying and what security-group is being applied. All useful information. To see more info, use verbose mode: gpresult /v ### GROUPS Groups are applied on login. If the group doesn't show, logout/login. ### RSOP Since GPO's can overlap, the follow will show what GPO's are winning in case they are fighting: rsop.msc ### NET ACCOUNTS Or a quicky to show password rules: net accounts /domain ## 10 Steps for NVMe Drives | Microsoft, Intel, Toshiba On 2 separate occasions today, I ran into problems with NVMe drives. These are SSD drives on a chip through a pcie slot rather than a SATA connection. The drives were Toshiba KXG60ZNV512G NVM and would BSOD coming out of sleep/hibernate. Here are 10 steps to make sure you have the best NVMe experience. 1- Update the drive firmware. Be sure to match the model number (KXG60ZNV512G). Dell's web site provided the wrong drive firmware. This firmware would not install as the drive was not found on the system. I found the correct firmware by showing all downloads for the model (Precision 7530). 2- Update the bios. The bios needs to be built to work with an NVMe drive. So if the bios doesn't work, it may need updated. 3- Write down the bios settings for the drive and reset to the default bios settings. Reboot. After reboot, manually set the settings again. There are some settings that cannot be changed manually. If there are hidden settings the default should be appropriate. But we want to make sure we have the drive settings (probably RAID/RST) because we don't want to guess after the update. Changing them incorrectly produces a BSOD on bootup. Not the end of the world as it can be fixed. 4- In the bios, turn off the C-STATE. While we are at it, turn of SPEEDSTEP... ugh. 4- Update the chipset drivers. 5- Update the NVMe drivers. There are 4 providers of NVMe drivers: 1. Microsoft built-in drivers. 2. Samsung. 3. Intel RST (iastorAC.inf). 4. OpenFabrics Alliance. Word on the street is that the OpenFabrics drivers perform best but let's stick with the crowd and use Intel RST drivers. 6- Manually install the drivers; UPDATE-DRIVERS > BROWSE > LET-ME-PICK > HAVE-DISK > choose IASTORAC.INF > Reboot. 7- Enable the Device Manager Write Caching Options by disabling the write cache buffer; DEVICE-MANAGER > DISK-DRIVES > RIGHT-CLICK > PROPERTIES > POLICIES > CHECKMARK "turn off windows write cache buffer." 8- Disable the Link Power Management (LPM). Open the Intel Rapid Storage Technology Software > PERFORMANCE > LINK-POWER-MANAGEMENT > DISABLE. 9- Set to ultimate performance. Windows has power settings for both plugged into power and for battery. If it is plugged in, use it for maximum performance. Some settings are hidden in the Windows UI, so set it via command line: powercfg -s e9a42b02-d5df-448d-aa00-03f14749eb61 While we are at it, make sure the hibernation is off: powercfg -h off 10- Have fun! Remember, if this "feels heavy," get someone else to do it for you. Here is a benchmark: ## 10 Reasons Why I Prefer Webroot Antivirus I wrote this email for a colleague who inquired about Webroot. After I finished the message and sent it, I realized that it was appropriate for a blog post: Webroot is very good protection. ### 1: INSTALLATION The installation is very simple with msi or exe options available. Both options are simple, silent and fast install. The command line looks something like this: msiexec.exe /i "wsasme.msi" ALLUSERS=1 /qn /norestart /log output.log GUILIC=664CG8545895728446C ### 2: PROTECTION-AREAS Once installed, the protection has the following areas: 1-Real time Protection 2-Rootkit Protection 3-Web Protection 4-USB Protection 5-Firewall Protection 6-Identity Protection 7-Phishing Protection 8-DNS protection is available as well as an upgrade. ### 3: SCANS Scans are very fast and use little processor resources. A “deep” scan takes around 30 seconds. A “Full” scan takes around 30-60 minutes but this scan is not needed because of the central console. ### 4: CONSOLE All computers report back to a central console which is located here: https://my.webrootanywhere.com ### 5: MONITOR The console is a central place to monitor systems, control systems and will show which systems are clean and which systems have problems. ### 6: CONTROL The console also controls the options for Webroot and will determine the settings for the software. One policy we like is the inability to uninstall the software. So even if a person has administrator rights, they are unable to remove Webroot. Uninstall is only performed by the console. The console also gives limited control access to the systems. You can perform manual scans, lock the computer, restart the computer or restart in safe-mode. This is good when the system is out of the office and might have little control over the system through other access. ### 7: THREAT RESOLUTION In the event that Webroot finds a threat, it will automatically resolve the issue and either quarantine the file or delete the file. There is very little maintenance to perform. ### 8: WEBSITE BLOCKING While the firewall blocks websites, Webroot is a second layer of protection that blocks when the system is not behind a company firewall. ### 9: DEFINITION-UPDATES Definition updates are handled by the console with cloud-based threat intelligence. All systems use the same definition updates and policies. ### 10: UPGRADE-VERSION Webroot will automatically update to the newest version. There is no need to manually update the software version. ### BONUS: ALERTS & REPORTS The console can generate alerts and reports. Alerts send an email or text message when any problem is found. Reports shows a list of problems for a time period; for example for the last 30 days, 60 days or 90 days. ### FINAL THOUGHTS The only other antivirus we are considering Cylance. ## Reset Cisco Router Password and Config | Authorization failed Trying to reset cisco password; getting "% Authorization failed" for every command. I guess there is an AAA set. PC <-> usb-to-serial-connection <-> serial-to-ethernet <-> ethernet-to-console plug into console putty select serial type: com3 Power on router startup sequence shows. hit CTRL + BREAK (within 60 seconds). type: confreg 0x2142 type: reset Wait for reboot. type: no type: enable type: show startup-config copy the entire output to your pc and save. type: config t type: config-register 0x2142 type: end type: reload type: no confirm the reload with enter type: no (when ask to enter the initial config). type: enable type: config t type: config-register 0x2102 (notice this is different) type: end type: write memory type: reload hit ENTER to confirm reload ## 10 Items I Wish I Knew Before Setting Up Webex Room Kit We had our first interaction with Webex Room Kit recently. After hashing it out for a few days, here are a couple of tips that might help: ### 1- Webex Meetings and Webex Teams are 2 separate products. Webex Meetings is traditional Webex. You can host/schedule meetings and other people can join. The meetings can be for small 1-on-1 type of meetings or they can be webinar type of meetings where one person presents and everyone else is muted. Up to 1000 people can attend. Webex Teams is like Skype. Others ring you and you can ANSWER or DECLINE. ### 2- Webex Meetings and Webex Teams are 2 separate software. Since they function differently, you will need both, if needed. My recommendation is to skip Webex Teams altogether. More on that later. Here is the current link for Webex Meetings (Windows): https://akamaicdn.webex.com/client/WBXclient-39.4.5-5/webexapp.msi You can install silently by: msiexec.exe /i "webexapp-39.4.5-5.msi" ALLUSERS=1 /qn /norestart /log output.log ### 3- Close Outlook when installing Webex Meetings. When Outlook is closed, Webex Meetings buttons will install into Outlook. You can use the buttons to Start a Meeting or Schedule a Meeting directly from Outlook. These buttons are not available for Webex Teams. This is a deal-breaker for Webex Teams. ### 4- Licensed Accounts are only needed for people who START/HOST/SCHEDULE meetings. If a user is not going to START/HOST/SCHEDULE a meeting, they do not need a license. They can still attend meetings that others START/HOST/SCHEDULE. ### 5- Webex Meetings (& Teams) is licensed per NAMED-USER (colloquially called PER-USER) or ACTIVE-USER (colloquially called CONCURRENT-USER). In NAMED-USER, you will pay for every person that has an account. If they never HOST/SCHEDULE a meeting, you will still pay. In ACTIVE-USER, you pay for the number of meetings that can happen at one-time. Like incoming/outgoing phone lines, once they are used up, someone will have to wait till a spot is free to make a call. ### 6- ACTIVE-USER (aka CONCURRENT-USER) starts at 40 licenses. This is kind of a bummer for small companies. It would be awesome if a 5 license option were available for smaller companies who may want the features of Webex but don't host meetings too often. For larger companies, with ACTIVE-LICENSE, you can install on everyone's computer (say 250 computers) and only pay for 40 licenses. Awesome option! ### 7- Webex Room Kits are Webex Teams by default. In thinking about it, it makes sense. If you have a conference room of 4 people and they need to call another room, that other room will have to ANSWER for anything to happen. If not, it just rings like a phone until a NO-ANSWER message shows. It will not just show the other conference room and wait for other people to show. That would be kind of creepy. ### 8- Webex Room Kit TouchPanel has a Directory which is Webex Teams by default. So if someone starts a Webex Meeting and you try to join via Webex Room Kit by calling their name from the Directory, it will not join the Meeting. It will just ring. This has been the single biggest source of frustration with the Webex Room Kit. People stomp away cursing under their breath about how the stuff doesn't work. I'm trying to see if that can be changed. ### 9- Call the Personal Room. If you start to type in someone's name, they will show twice. Once as their name and a second time as a PERSONAL-ROOM. By tapping on their name, you are calling them via Webex Teams. By tapping on their PERSONAL-ROOM, you are calling them via Webex Meetings. This is "fix" for the frustration above. Trying to communicate (educate?) people on this has proven to be difficult. In short, call the Personal Room. ### 10- Adjust the Options from https://admin.webex.com This web site can control the Webex Room Kit. Options like Whiteboard focus, so that the camera can focus on the person in the conference room along with a Whiteboard and options like Standby-Branding, so that you can display a web site on the TV while the Webex Room Kit is not being used are both options can be found by a little digging. ### 11 (Bonus!)- Siri/Cortana is Built Into the Webex Room Kit OK, it is their version of Siri/Cortana but you can say, "Hey Webex, call John" and it will do your bidding. Of course, use caution on the whole Teams/Meeting Personal Room aspect. ### Conclusion In the end, Webex Room Kits along with Webex Meetings is one of the best all around options available for video conferencing and can change the entire culture of the company while providing best-in-class service to customers. Webex Meetings is great but needs a bit of class time to get the full features out of it. Webex Teams,while perhaps necessary, is very confusing to communicate and for users to pick up on their own. Having 2 options only serves to increase support times. Do yourself a favor and ditch Webex Teams going with Webex Meetings only is the way to go. Now to see if it is possible to change that darn Directory in Webex Room Kit Touchpad to only show Personal Rooms... ## Why WatchGuard? Why WatchGuard instead of {insert brand name here}? Good question. ### Fine Grain Control First and foremost, WatchGuard has fine-grain control. This means that WatchGuard will inspect every incoming and outgoing traffic. This is done on a port level (0-65,535) and a portocol level. This means it can allow/deny protocols on ports that it should not be running on. This is different than lower-end systems that will allow all outgoing traffic but only port-forwards incoming ports. ### Automatic Deny WatchGuard automatically denies something that it does not recognize. This is important for security. This way, only items that need to go through are doing so through manual allowance rather than automatic allowance. ### Multiple Interfaces WatchGuard can handle multiple interfaces. This means dual WAN connections or possibly more; such as dual-WAN and MPLS connections. Or perhaps a single WAN connection and multiple internal network segments that are completely separate. Think in terms of an office suite where there might be 5 tenants or more sharing a single internet connection. The economies of scale are at work here as every tenant could share a single fiber connection rather than each getting their own WAN/ISP. ### Multiple IP Addresses WatchGuard can handle multiple public IP addresses all on the same interface. This means that we can use one ip address for our LAN and other dedicated IP addresses for servers. This helps for security but also if you have multiple servers using the same port number, say port 80 for web hosting. You can have multiple web servers behind the same WatchGuard with different public ip address but using the same WAN connection. ### No Reboot Configuration Updates WatchGuard will apply new configurations without rebooting the system. The only time a reboot is needed is when the OS is updated. This is a dream if you ever managed any other system that wants to reboot everytime a change is made. ### Wireless Controller WatchGuard has wireless controller builtin. This allows for easy deployment of several access points (AP's) at once. It will sniff out new AP's and ask if it should manage them. This can be done via internet as well. So upgrading AP firmware is done in one fell scheduled swoop in the wee hours of the morning during low/no traffic. ### Business Class Ready WatchGuard is business class ready. Stop using home quality routers at the office. With uptimes more than a year, WatchGuard is built for the offices both large and small. ### Integrated Threat Detection Against Cryptolocker WatchGuard has integrated Threat Detection client that can run on the systems. If cryptolocker is detected, WatchGuard can shut it down automatically. ### VPN Options WatchGuard handles VPN through SSL VPN (it can also do PPTP and IPSEC). With PPTP being outdated and other systems difficult to setup, WatchGuard SSL VPN works out of the box. And it works at most remote situations since it runs over https/port 443. This saves on support time for road warriors and conference travelers needing to connect back to the office. Also WatchGuard VPN can be site to site with super easy drag and drop configuration. Next, WatchGuard VPN can be split-tunnel for remote workers. This allows remote workers to use the local internet connection for web surfing and the VPN connection for office network shares. Helps in situations where road warriors need to print to their local network printers but still need access to the office server. WatchGuard VPN works with OpenVPN. This allows the traffic to be forced over the VPN connection. ### Centralized Management WatchGuard can be managed centrally through WatchGuard System Manager. This means that if you have several WatchGuard firewalls (or hundreds... cough, cough), you can manage them all from a single console. This manages licenses, upgrades, wireless firmware, firewall rules. You name it and the WatchGuard System Manager can manage it. ### Centralized Reporting Likewise, WatchGuard has Centralized Reporting in the form of WatchGuard Dimension. All traffic from all clients across all WatchGuard Firewalls is recorded in a central location. If we need to run a report on web sites visited during a certain time, no problem. Here it is. ### Putting All Together Putting this all together means that we can manage many WatchGuard systems and their wireless access points and their reporting across North America without ever leaving network operations center. ## Powershell Get Disk Space Here is how to get the disk space in powershell with GB (aka human readable numbers): get-psdrive Here it is cleaned up a bit: get-psdrive -PSProvider filesystem | Format-Table -Wrap -AutoSize -Property Root,@{Name='UsedGB';Expression={[math]::round($_.used/1gb,2)}}, @{Name='FreeGB';Expression={[math]::round($_.free/1gb,2)}}, @{Name='PctFree';expression={$_.free/($_.free+$_.used)*100 –as [int]}}

It has every connected drive,  drive letter, used GB, free GB and Percentage Free GB.

https://watchguardsupport.secure.force.com/software/

The OS upgrade option is built into the web ui and should be used to upgrade versions. The OS upgrade will also upgrade the SSL VPN client versions that are stored directly on the Firebox.

## Install WebEx Remotely

Let's say that you have limited access to a system. Let's say that you want to download a WebEx package to the system via command line/powershell. Here's how:

wget "https://akamaicdn.webex.com/client/WBXclient-39.4.5-5/webexapp.msi" -outfile "webexapp.msi"

msiexec.exe /i "webexapp.msi" ALLUSERS=1 /qn /norestart /log output.log

## Remove Appx Windows 10

Remove Appx app (is that redundant?):

Get-AppxPackage -allusers -name "Microsoft.MicrosoftOfficeHub" |Remove-AppxPackage

## Surface Pro 4 Max Perfomance

Click here to see how to set the Surface Pro 4 to Max Performance on the Intel HD Graphics and the Processor:

https://www.windowscentral.com/how-max-intel-hd-graphics-surface-pro-4

## WDF_VIOLATION BSOD 1903

MacBook Pro circa 2011 running bootcamp and Windows 10. Updated to 1903. BSOD "WDF_VIOLATION."

-hold power button to shut off.
-press power button to turn on.
-do this about 3 times. After the 3rd time, the option for ADVANCED BOOT should appear.
-press F8
-select SAFE-MODE WITH COMMAND-PROMPT
(a scary black screen shows)
-you will be at c:\windows\system32

-type: cd drivers
-type: dir |findstr /i machal
-it will show: MacHALDriver.sys
-this is our problem.
-type: rename MacHALDriver.sys MacHALDriver.sys.sav
-press ENTER key
-type: shutdown -r -t 3
-press ENTER key

The system will reboot and you should be able to login as normal with the BSOD. Apparently the BOOTCAMP DRIVERS V6 will fix. But I have not tried to install yet.

## WatchGuard Allow Web Site

Typically we block web site to weapons by default. Going to a web site like the following is blocked: beretta.com

But what if they are a client and we want the MARKETING group to allow access to the web site?

-this was the simple setup:
https://www.jscmgroup.com/watchguard-blog/2016/8/29/watchguard-webblocker-actions

Without any setup the log is:
2019-06-05 14:53:51 Deny 10.192.480.250 199.83.128.143 http/tcp 56564 80 0-LANLAG 0-External ProxyDeny: HTTP Request categories (Outbound-HTTP-proxy-00) proc_id="http-proxy" rc="595" msg_id="1AFF-0021" proxy_act="HTTP-Client.Standard.1" cats="Weapons" op="GET" dstname="beretta.com" arg="/favicon.ico"

-you can see that the proxy-action is: HTTP-Client.Standard.1.
-but it should be: HTTP-Client.marketing
-this is because the proxy-action is not attaching to the group. This is because I was trying on a system on a subnet with an exception for authentication:
10.192.480.0/24 (note: subnet not real for posting purposes)
-this results in NO-AUTH, NO-GROUP and NO-PROXY-ACTION.
-using different pc on: 10.192.420.0/24

-for setup, the key here is that the WatchGuard group name needs to be the same as the AD group name: MARKETING
-next, create the rule where you can create the proxy. I went the long way around.
-edit-policy > Proxy-Action > HTTP Proxy Exceptions

NOTES:
-going to: -edit-policy > Proxy-Action > WebBlocker
-click: EDIT > EXCEPTIONS
-type: *.beretta.com/*
Did not work. I still ended up with log:
2019-06-05 15:40:06 Deny 10.192.420.100 199.83.134.143 http/tcp 61063 80 0-LANLAG 0-External ProxyDeny: HTTP Content Type match (Outbound-HTTP-Marketing-00) proc_id="http-proxy" rc="595" msg_id="1AFF-0018" proxy_act="HTTP-Client.marketing" rule_name="Default" src_user="dakruhm"

-the fix should be:
-edit-policy > Proxy-Action > HTTP-RESPONSE > CONTENT-TYPES

## OpenText Enterprise Scan and SAP

Here are my scribble notes so I don't have to look them up again.

Install the OpenText Enterprise Scan program.

Scanning is rather simple, just make sure you select the correct model of scanner and scan the document.

Next is sending to the Archive Server.

Setup the pipeline to the Archive server (ie 10.195.160.4).
scan config manager

Test the archive server pipeline:
scan > config-manager

Pipeline info:
localhost
Port 4023
Port 8080 (for management)
right-click & select LIST-PIPELINES

Start Enterprise Scan
Config Archive

Ops
Capture Center
Capture Center via shared
content server
doc pipe for content server
doc pipe for SAP
doc pipe for tcp
external storage

Flow
Doc pipeline SAP

Server
http
8080
check
nettcp secure
19284
local
localhttp

There is a possibility that there is a port on a firewall that needs to be opened if the archive server is offsite.

Check the profile: cmd > set
ecm conf dir = c:\ProgramData\Open Text (intentional space "Open" "space" "Text")
ecm doc pipeline base = c:\Program Files\OpenText
ecm doc pipeline conf = c:\ProgramData\OpenText (intentional nospace "OpenText")
ecm doc pipeline info = c:\ProgramData\OpenText (intentional nospace "OpenText")
ecm doc pipeline sap = c:\ProgramData\OpenText (intentional nospace "OpenText")

c:\ProgramData\OpenText\BASE Document Pipeline\config\dpconfig\dp.dpconfig
c:\ProgramData\OpenText\BASE Document Pipeline\config\dpconfig\dp.dpinfo

Error Message: Late_Archive_error | Could Not Process Document

Logs are here:
c:\ProgramData\OpenText\var\LogDir\doctods_1.log

http status code = '0', http status message = 'Couldn't resolve host name'
dsc::dscOpenDoc dsc.cxx-9776 cannot reserve a document id; the call of function dshDsReserveDocId() failed: 'HTTP error: connection was broken: host = denw08v701 (archive='ABC')'

This means the archive is not working because the local system cannot find the system that is named in the script. This happens because the server is outside the domain so simply stating the system as "denw08v701" it needs to be "denw08v701.domain.tld".

Or you can edit the HOSTS file:
c:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts

10.195.160.4 denw08v701

## Find What Port Number a Mac Address Is On Cisco IOS

Find What Port Number a Mac Address Is On Cisco IOS

If you know the full Mac address, you can perform the following:

If you know just part of the Mac address (where 1818 is the last 4 digits of the Mac):

show mac address-table | include 1818

enable

configure  terminal

interface GigabitEthernet0/1
description MPLS
duplex full
speed 100

Be sure that your link speed is set correctly. Sometimes auto speed doesn't work right.

And change your gateway/bgp-neighbor, if needed:

router bgp 65000
no synchronization
bgp log-neighbor-changes
redistribute connected
redistribute ospf 30
neighbor 10.162.30.1 remote-as 65006
neighbor 10.162.131.49 remote-as 1
no auto-summary

copy  running-config startup-config

You can show your routes by:

show ip route

## Hyper-V Integration Services Windows Server 2016 Datacenter

Integration services is Microsoft's terminology for client-tools/guest-tools. Other vendors such as VMware and VirtualBox have their own terminology but the idea is the same. With the tools installed the guest VM works better, faster, etc.

To see if the Integration Services are installed:

• -go to Host system.
• -type: get-vm |ft name,version

With Windows 10 Guest VM, and Server 2016 Host, the integration services are installed via Windows Update.

To see the version of Integration Services:

-type: REG QUERY "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Virtual Machine\Auto" /v IntegrationServicesVersion

Then let us see if the service on the GuestVM is running:

-type: Get-Service -Name vm*

## Laptop Password Expired and VPN

Let's say that you have a typical Windows domain network at the headquarters. A rule of the network account policy is that the password changes every 90 days.

And let's say that you have a group of outside sales people who do not come into the office. Every once in a while they vpn into HQ.

If the password expires on their account, they can still login to their laptops because the laptop keeps a local copy of the access list. But then the VPN fails and email fails.

They call and we reset their account password.

The VPN works.

But then how does the laptop get updated?

Here's how:

• connect to a network for internet.
• start the VPN connection to HQ.
• lock the laptop (CTRL+ALT+DEL > LOCK).
• unlock (using the new password).

When unlocking, the computer is connected to the domain (via the VPN tunnel), It will verify the password with the domain. As a side effect this will update the password on the laptop.

## Linux Delete All Files Greater than a Certain Size

Lets say you have a directory of photos. The directory is about 1TB and the hard drive is packed full. How do you delete files that are larger than a certain size?

Here's how:

cd /path/to/dir
find . -name "*.jpg" -size +1000k -delete

K is for KB.
Miss off the "-delete" if you want to run a test without deleting the files.

Or if you need to delete base on date (files older than 30 days):
find ./path/to/dir/ -type f -mtime +30 -delete

## Mimecast LDAPS Connection

Here is the best source for setup of LDAPS:

https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/microsoftrservertigerteam/2017/04/10/step-by-step-guide-to-setup-ldaps-on-windows-server/

For Mimecast, if you are using a self-signed certificate as the instructions above provide, set the Encryption Mode to: Relaxed

## Rename User Active Directory

Rename user in Active Directory is a common task but putting it all in one spot

### Rename User in GUI

-open Active Directory Users and Computers.
-right-click on the Name.
-select RENAME.
(rename User dialog box appears to change other common items)

### Rename User in CMD

dsmod user "<UserDN>" -upn "<NewUserUPN>" -ln "<NewUserLastName>"

### Rename User in PS

or

For a full one-liner:
Get-ADUser "old.name" |Rename-ADObject -NewName “New Name” | Set-ADUser -GivenName “New” -Surname “Name” -DisplayName “New Name” -SamAccountName “newname” -UserPrincipalName " This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

NOTES:

All the following are different:

Name
GivenName
Surname
SamAccountName
DisplayName
OtherName
UserPrincipalName

Most can be set by: Set-ADUser

But the Name of the Object is a bit different and needs to be set by: Rename-ADObject

## Watchguard VPN Split Tunnel Doesn't Resolve

Watchguard VPN setup. Watchguard has a split tunnel automatically. Works for hundreds of people.

Run into a new setup where the Watchguard VPN would connect but asking for vlan resources would respond back with the local network. The desired result is the remote network.

This happens to be on an ATT home router. The laptop is hard-wired connected. Note that the wireless connection work fine. Go figure.

Here's how to diagnose on the vpn laptop:

• -click START > POWERSHELL (as admin).
• -type: get-netipinterface

Typically, out of the box, each connection will have a name (obviously) and a setting for IPV4 and IPV6. Each setting will have a METRIC.

Let's say the the connections are named: ETHERNET and VPN.

You will notice that:

ETHERNET IPV4 has a metric of 35
ETHERNET IPV6 has a metric of 35
VPN IPV4 has a metric of 35
VPN IPV6 has a metric of 35

What we need to do is set the METRIC on the hard-wired connection to a number higher than the vpn connection.

-type: netsh int ipv4 set interface interface="ETHERNET" metric=40
-type: netsh int ipv6 set interface interface="ETHERNET" metric=40

That should do it.

Note that other posts will talk about turning ipv6 off, etc.

## Watchguard Change Opened Ports | Watchguard Change Opened Outgoing Ports

Watchguard Change Opened Ports | Watchguard Change Opened Outgoing Ports

Let's say that you already have a firewall policy on your Firebox. That firewall policy has a non-standard-port open from that static internal ip-address to the rest of the www (any-external) so that it can talk to who it needs to. Note that this is not a static server internally that needs to service the rest of the www such as a web server, this is simply a piece of software that needs to reach out on a non-standard-port.

Now, at the current moment, you need to either add to the port list or change the port number.

When you click on the firewall policy there is no option to edit the port list or the port number. How you change it?

Good question. What you want to do is change what is called in Watchguard-speak, the firewall-policy-type.

Here's how:

• -click FIREWALL > FIREWALL-POLICIES.
• -click ADD-POLICY (at the top). (Yes, even if you are not adding a firewall-policy).
• -bullet CUSTOM.
• -select the policy-type (from the drop-down list).
• -click EDIT.
• -click ADD | EDIT | REMOVE as necessary.
• -click SAVE (at the bottom).
• -click CANCEL (so that it does not save a new firewall-policy).

I have yet to figure out if there is a better way to go directly to the firewall-policy-types.

## Watchguard Port Forward

Here is how to port forward if you are hosting a server of some type on your internal network that needs to be accessible outside of the office:

• -click on Firewall > SNAT.
• -type name: 5802 incoming to port 5802
• -type internal address to send traffic to. (e.g., 10.1.10.5)
• -click OK.
• -click SAVE
• -click Firewall > Firewall Policies.
• -click CUSTOM.
• -type name: 5802 incoming to port 5802
• -enter port # and click OK. (e.g., 5802)
• -click SAVE.
• -change “FROM” box to contain only “Any-External”.
• -remove everything in “TO” box.
• -change “Member Type” to “Static NAT”.
• -select the Policy Type you just added and click OK.
• -click SAVE.

## Get All Mailboxes With Permissions Other Than Themselves

Get All Mailboxes With Permissions Other Than Themselves. Here's how:

Get-Mailbox | Get-MailboxPermission | where {$_.user.tostring() -ne "NT AUTHORITY\SELF" -and$_.IsInherited -eq $false} | Select Identity,User,@{Name='Access Rights';Expression={[string]::join(', ',$_.AccessRights)}} | Export-Csv -NoTypeInformation mailboxpermissions-v1.csv

## Outlook Calendar Permissions for Visual Learners

Learn visually? Me too. Here's the Outlook Permissions in table format with color view:

 Author Contributor Editor None NoneEditingAuthor Owner PublishingEditor PublishingAuthor Reviewer AvailabilityOnly LimitedDetails CreateItems CreateSubfolders DeleteAllItems DeleteOwnedItems EditAllItems EditOwnedItems FolderContact FolderOwner FolderVisable ReadItems Free/Busy Free/Busy w Name & Location

## Office 365 - Join Computer to Domain | Azure Active Directory

Do you have an Office365 account for your company domain (ie daknetworks.com) and email? Did you know that you can join your laptop or desktop to the Office365 domain?

The typical access for Office365 is here:
https://portal.office.com

There is also another portal to manage your Office365 domain:

### AZURE ACTIVE DIRECTORY

Once here, you are welcomed with so many services it is hard to keep them straight. What we are interested in is Azure-Active-Directory. Once you click on Azure-Active-Directory, you will see more options. Let's cover the basics.

#### USERS

Clicking on USERS will show you the users in your company. These naturally mirror the email accounts as you can't have an email account without having an Azure-Active-Directory account. But that might not be obvious if this is new to you.

#### GROUPS

Click on GROUPS is similar.

#### DEVICES

DEVICES will show all the DEVICES that is REGISTERED or JOINED. What's the difference?

REGISTERED is allowing the company to control the device. This is what happens with your iPhone (because who in their right mind would use Android). When you add your Office365 company email address to the phone, the company can control your iPhone. You might not know that. But it is nonetheless true. They can take the email account off the phone without your permission or they can wipe your entire iPhone without your permission.

The same is true for Windows 10 laptops/desktops. If you add your Office365 company email address to Outlook, the company can control your computer is some ways. Just like your iPhone, your computer is still accessible by you with the password that you setup when you brought the computer home from the store or received in the mail/ups/fedex/amazon package. But your company can control some of the items on your computer.

JOINED is what we think of in a traditional computer setup for a small company with an on-site server. When a computer is JOINED, any user in the company can login to that computer without having to setup the password locally. All the usernames/passwords are kept on a centrally located "invitation list."

### JOIN COMPUTER TO AZURE ACTIVE DIRECTORY

So how do you do that?

• -click START > SETTINGS > ACCOUNTS
• -click ACCESS-WORK-OR-SCHOOL (on the left-hand side).
• -click CONNECT.
• -click JOIN-THIS-DEVICE-TO-AZURE-ACTIVE-DIRECTORY.
• -click NEXT.
• -click SIGN-IN > JOIN > DONE.

### MAGIC TO GET AROUND YOUR ORGANIZATION REQUIRES HELLO

There's a part here where if we continue, it will want to change your password to a PIN. Let's get around this.

• -click START > RUN.
• -type: gpedit.msc
• -click Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Windows Hello for Business (on the left-hand side).
• -click Use Windows Hello for Business (in the middle).
• -click DISABLED.
• -click OK
• -restart your computer to make sure it survives reboot.

### LOGIN WITH AZURE ACTIVE DIRECTORY

• -click OTHER-USER (at the bottom-left).

Note that when you do this, the process creates a new user on the computer so your DESKTOP, DOCUMENTS, PHOTOS, VIDEOS will all be reset to a fresh set. Any items you might have had are still in the other username and password. This can be manually transferred from the other account if needed.

### NOTES

I could go on and on about the benefits of this:

1. this computer now shows in Azure-Active-Directory > DEVICES section.
2. if you open EDGE, go to https://portal.office.com you are automatically logged in and can download and install the software.
3. if you open OUTLOOK, your account is automatically found and setup

In addition, I could go on and on about the number of misleading videos and long-winded documents I had to travel to get this far. Here are some of them:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/devices/overview

## Exchange 2013 Room Lists

Exchange 2013 Room Lists exist.

To get a list of all the room resources:

get-mailbox |? {$_.resourcetype -eq "room"} Just as mailboxes can be part of a group/distribution-group, the room resources can be part of a group/distribution-group. These are groups do not show in the ECP. To get a list of all the roomlist groups: get-DistributionGroup |? {$_.recipienttypedetails -eq "roomlist"}

To create a new roomlist group:

New-DistributionGroup conference-rooms-foo -RoomList

To add a member to the roomlist group:

To get a list of all the members of a roomlist group:

get-DistributionGroupMember conference-rooms-foo

## SPF Records

For some reason, we have never done an article on SPF records. Here are some notes concerning SPF.

Here are our current records:

v=spf1 a mx ip4:216.245.219.162 include:_spf.freshbooks.com -all

A is for the A record

MX is for the MX record

ip4 is for a dedicated ip address.

include is for including an outside system. In this case Freshbooks which handles our billing for us.

Since A, MX and IP are all the same, only one is needed. We changed it to this:

v=spf1 mx a include:_spf.freshbooks.com -all

## FileMaker Server Install Certificate

Client has a FileMaker Server installed at a datacenter. They need the certificate installed and working.

### Generate a CSR

• -open FILEMAKER SERVER.
• -click DATABASE-SERVER > SECURITY.
• -click CREATE-REQUEST.
• -create a password by typing it in.
• -when you do, a CSR file (certificate request) and a PRIVATE-KEY will be generated.
• -the files are automatically kept here: C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Server\CStore
• -the CRS is called ServerRequest.pem
• -this is just a text file. Open the file with NOTEPAD or TEXTEDIT or EDITPAD or NOTEPAD++ (not WORD).

### Create a Signed Certificate

• -take the contents of the CSR and give them to your SSL provider (GoDaddy, RapidSSL, Comodo, etc).
• -once submitted, that will generate a signed certificate.
• -it will also give you an intermediary certificate or chain certificate.

### Gathering All the Certificates

• -create a folder on the desktop of the FileMaker Server.
• -create a new text file in the folder.
• -copy the contents of the signed certificate from your SSL provider (GoDaddy, RapidSSL, Comodo, etc) and paste them into the text file.
• -rename the file your.filemaker.domain.tld.crt
• -create another new text file in the folder.
• -copy the contents of the SHA-1 Root certificate from your SSL provider (GoDaddy, RapidSSL, Comodo, etc) and paste them into the text file.
• -copy the contents of the intermediary certificate from your SSL provider (GoDaddy, RapidSSL, Comodo, etc) and paste them into the text file directly under the root certificate.
• -so the file should look like this:

=================

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
root-certificate-here-blah-blah-blah
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
intermediary-certificate-here-blah-blah-blah
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

=================

• -rename the file chain.crt
• -copy the file C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Server\CStore\serverKey.pem to this folder as well.
• -so the folder has 3 files:
• 1-your.filemaker.domain.tld.crt
• 2-chain.crt
• 3-serverKey.pem

### Install the Certificate on FileMaker Server

• -click DATABASE-SERVER > SECURITY.
• -click IMPORT CERTIFICATE.
• -for SIGNED-CERTIFICATE choose the file your.filemaker.domain.tld.crt
• -for PRIVATE-KEY choose the file serverKey.pem
• -for INTERMEDIATE-CERTIFICATE choose the file chain.crt
• -for password, type in the password create during the CRS in the first step.
• -click IMPORT.
• -restart the service (or restart the server).

That should do it! You're awesome! You now have a green lock in the FileMaker Pro clients running around the country and everyone is happy.

### NOTES

What makes this difficult is the terminology and the different certificate types and extensions (crt, cer, pem, p7s, etc). Naturally, I think most people try to use CER files by mistake.

Also the Intermediate certificate is a pain since sometime it is needed but not provided. When it is provided, they expect you to know what to do with it.

Lastly, sometimes they provide 2 Intermediate certificate along with their root-certificates and they expect you to know which one to use. Hint, use SHA-1-root with FM Server v16.

Here are the intermediate certificates for RAPIDSSL:

• -find ROOT
• -it will show the root-certficate.
• -put this at the top of the chain.crt (which has nothing other than this pasted text).
• -find INTERMEDIATE CA
• -it will show the intermediate-certficate.
• -put this in the same file but under the root certificate.
• -save the file as chain.crt

## Windows Couldn't Connect To The User Profile Service Service (aka All Your User Profile Are Belong To Us)

Windows Couldn't Connect To The User Profile Service Service (aka All Your User Profile Are Belong To Us)

### SCENARIO

This happens after an upgrade to v1803 or to v1809 or to v1903.

### RESOLUTION

Get the HOMEDRIVE:

get-aduser -filter * -searchbase "ou=<location>,ou=<users>,dc=<domain-name>,dc=com" -properties homedrive, homedirectory, scriptpath |ft name, homedrive, homedirectory

This will output:

name            homedrive homedirectory
----               ---------      -------------
Foo User     Z                \\server\users$\foo.user You will see above the HOMEDRIVE is something like a capital letter. In this case: "Z" This needs to be set as: "Z:" In other words, it is missing the colon ":" To implement, first get the usernames in the OU needing serviced:$usernames = (get-aduser -filter * -searchbase "ou=<location>,ou=<users>,dc=<domain-name>,dc=com" -properties samaccountname |foreach { $_.samaccountname }) Now set the correct HOMEDRIVE value: foreach ($username in $usernames) {set-aduser$username -homedrive Z:}

This happens because the HOMEDRIVE value is set incorrectly for the update script.

There is some sort of script that is trying to move the profile (Desktop, Documents, Favorites, Pictures, Photos, Videos) to OneDrive. The script errors when the HOMEDRIVE doesn't have the colon.

## WSUS - Force System to Check for Windows Updates

Windows Service Update Service (WSUS) is groaned by many administrators. What should be a drop-dead-easy process is overly complicated and difficult to manage.

Everything should "just work." But it doesn't.

On 80% of the systems, the ones left on all the time, the success rate is high. The updates download and install on schedule as per the Group Policy (GPO).

On 20% of the systems, the laptops not left on all the time or away from the office, the success rate is mixed. Sometimes the downloads update, sometimes not. Sometimes the downloads install. Sometimes not.

Invariably, throughout the course of a deployment, a handful of laptops and tablets start to lag behind. They refuse to download and install the updates for whatever reason.

This necessitates the ability to force the client system to download and update.

### WUAUCLT

To force them to update and install used to be:

wuauclt /detectnow
wuauclt /updatenow

Or you could use the switches together:

wuauclt /detectnow /updatenow

### USOCLIENT

Now with Windows 10, wuauclt is no longer working. But the completely undocumented USOCLIENT can be used to do the same:

USOClient StartScan
USOClient StartInstall
USOclient Refreshsettings
USOclient StartInteractiveScan
USOClient RestartDevice
USOClient ScanInstallWait
USOclient ResumeUpdate

I’ve used the following command to get remote systems to update with success:
USOclient ScanInstallWait
USOclient StartInstall

Few notes:

1. there is no slash.
2. there is no documentation on the command.
3. there is no output or feedback from the command.
4. this command replaces: wuauclt

### PSWINDOWSUPDATE

Or you can use powershell. This is not built-in so a module will have to be installed.

Install-Module PSWindowsUpdate
Get-WindowsUpdate
Install-WindowsUpdate

### NOTES:

I cannot figure out why the whole process isn't easier, why there is not another way or why this is undocumented.

## All Enabled Accounts on Exchange Sorted by Last Name

Them: Can you give us a list of All Enabled Accounts on Exchange Sorted by Last Name?

Me: Sure.

The problem becomes this is trickier than it seems.

There are 3 commands that are helpful:

get-mailbox: a list of all the mailboxes, including SHARED, RESOURCE, EQUIPMENT, ROOM but not including contacts, mailuser, distributiongroup, etc. Disabled accounts are included. There is no disabled/enabled property.
Use the following to see what it shows and the number of items:

Get-Mailbox |Group-Object RecipientTypeDetails |Select name,count

get-recipient: a list of all recipients including mailboxes, contacts, mailuser, distributiongroup, etc. Basically, any type of existing Exchange Online recipient.
Use the following to see what it shows and the number of items:

Get-recipient |Group-Object RecipientTypeDetails |Select name,count

get-user: get the USER objects from Active Directory, including the users without mailboxes and disabled users.
Use the following to see what it shows and the number of items:

Get-user |Group-Object RecipientTypeDetails |Select name,count

Knowing the above, we can put together a command that lists out all the USERS from AD that is enabled:

Get-User -RecipientTypeDetails UserMailbox -sortby lastname |where {$_.UserAccountControl -notlike “*AccountDisabled*”} |Select samaccountname ## Find What Groups a User In AD is a Member Of Find What Groups a User In AD is a Member Of Here is how for one person: get-aduser foo.user -properties MemberOf |Select -ExpandProperty memberof or use the newer command: Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership foo.user | select name or use the older command-line: net user foo.user /domain Here is how for a group in an OU: get-aduser -filter * -searchbase "ou=ou-name-here,dc=company-domain,dc=com" -properties MemberOf |Select -ExpandProperty memberof or you need just the Name and MemberOf: get-aduser -filter * -searchbase "ou=ou-name-here,dc=company-domain,dc=com" -properties MemberOf |Select samaccountname,memberof And if you need to put the whole thing together: get-aduser -filter * -searchbase "ou=ou-name-here,dc=company-name,dc=com" -properties Memberof |Select samaccountname,@{n="Groups";e={(Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership$_).name}} |ft -wrap

Or if you need just the accounts that are more than the "Domain Users" group:

get-ADuser -Filter * -searchbase "ou=ou-name-here,dc=company-domain,dc=com" -properties Memberof |where memberof -ne "Domain Users" |Select samaccountname,@{n="Groups";e={(Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership $_).name}} But maybe miss off the Guest account: get-ADuser -Filter * -searchbase "ou=Disabled Users,dc=foodomain,dc=tld" -properties Memberof |where {($_.memberof -ne "Domain Users") -and ($_.samaccountname -ne "Guest")} |Select samaccountname,@{n="Groups";e={(Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership$_).name}}

And to take this one step further, if you need to remove the user from all the account's groups, then:

## In-Place Archive Exchange 2013

The archive mailbox is an additional mailbox that's enabled for an account where messages older than 2 years are automatically moved (this can be customized in the retentionpolicy). This keeps the everyday mailbox at a more manageable level and allows for faster indexing and email searches.

Some power users will familiar with archiving in Outlook as they may have crossed this issue in the past. They archive the email older than 2 years into a pst file. That pst file will show as a separate set of folders on the left hand side.

In-Place Archive is very similar. However, where this different is that in-place archive is controlled by the Exchange administrator and does not require user intervention. The Exchange administrator can turn archiving on/off on the fly and control where the archive mailbox lives; this can be placed on the same edb or a different edb.

Here's how to enable archiving:

enable-mailbox foo.user -archive

Here's how to see what accounts have archive enabled:

get-mailbox -Filter {ArchiveState -Eq 'local'}

If you want to get the pertinent details of the archive such as archive database and archivename:

get-mailbox -Filter {ArchiveState -Eq 'local'} |select alias,archivestate,archivedatabase,archivename,retentionpolicy |fl

NOTES:

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/exchange/policy-and-compliance/in-place-archiving/manage-archives

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/exchange/policy-and-compliance/mrm/apply-retention-policies-to-mailboxes

## Federation Trust in Exchange

### Setup

1-First setup a trust to the Microsoft servers:

• -click ORGANIZATION.
• -click SHARING.
• -click ENABLE to add a Federation Trust to the Microsoft servers.
• -click CLOSE.
• -click MODIFY.
• -select the PRIMARY domain.
• -click OK.
• -it will return a TXT record.
• -create a TXT record for this domain on your public DNS server that contains the key. It will look like this:
g1lg/IZ3MIHN0TaBsNMF+QzYbbA8Z39B/d46rQfQVmtNYbb6w0vRDQagL1b+bkbXbhstfg6PWw6JRtQqIIJ3Q==
• -create a TXT record for this domian on your Private DNS servers in your Active Directory.
• -wait. This should be around 15 minutes but can take 24 hours.

2-Second, the outside domain must do the same steps above.

3-Third setup an ORGANIZATION-SHARING using the outside domain. It will fail if the domains have not setup the trusts.

• -checkmark enable calendar free/busy information sharing.

4-Fourth setup an INDIVIDUAL-SHARING policy and set it as the default policy for everyone in the Exchange server.

### Result

That should do it; you should now be able to see each others calendars as FREE/BUSY (not details).

To my dismay, this does not update users in the Global Address List (GAL) to include the outside domain. This means that, by default, looking up another person's calendar in the outsidedomain.tld is near impossible. You either have to manually type in all the outsidedomain.tld users into Exchange or use tools to do the sync for you; it is not built into Exchange. Grrrr...

### Troubleshooting

As troubleshooting, you can get the URL by:

• -hold CONTROL
• -right-click the OUTLOOK icon (bottom-right).
• -click TEST-EMAIL-AUTOCONFIGURATION.
• -click TEST.
• -the AVAILABILITY-SERVICE-URL is the important URL.

Also, in the EMS, you can use the commands:

get-sharingpolicy foo-policy |fl

get-organizationrelationship |fl

get-federationinformation -DomainName outsidedomain.tld

Test-FederationTrust -useridentity mail\inside.foo.user

test-organizationrelationship -useridentity This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it -identity outsidedomain.tld

As a result of the above test-organizationrelationship troubleshooting command failing, I had to toggle two properties and had to run the following:

Get-WebServicesVirtualDirectory | Set-WebServicesVirtualDirectory -WSSecurityAuthentication $false Get-WebServicesVirtualDirectory | Set-WebServicesVirtualDirectory -WSSecurityAuthentication$True

Get-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory | Set-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory -WSSecurityAuthentication $false Get-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory | Set-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory -WSSecurityAuthentication$True

## Setup Send Connector in Exchange 2013 With Custom Port Number

Setup Send Connector in Exchange 2013 With Custom Port Number

• -click MAIL-FLOW (left-hand side).
• -click SEND-CONNECTORS (top)
• -click the "+" symbol.
• -name it anything you want. Let's say "foo-send-connector".
• -bullet CUSTOM.
• -click NEXT.
• -bullet ROUTE-THROUGH-SMART-HOSTS
• -click the "+" symbol.
• -type in the IP ADDRESS of the server you want to deliver the mail to.
• -click SAVE.
• -click NEXT.
• -bullet EXTERNALLY SECURED.
• -click NEXT.
• -click the "+" symbol.
• -type in the domain name that will be used for this sending setup.
In other words, this setup is only going to be used with a particular domain name; contoso.com. In another way, when sending to contoso.com use the following custom smtp route instead of the normal smtp route.
• -checkmark SCOPED-SEND-CONNECTOR.
• -click the "+" symbol.
• -select the server that this will apply to.
Small setups will probably only have 1 server.
• -click FINISH.

Now this will work. But it is setup on the default port 25. This is standard. But what if you want a non-standard port. Let's say because the SAP setup is out of your control.

-start the EMS.

-type: Get-SendConnector |fl
This will allow you to see the complete Send Connector setup in the steps above. You will notice the Port number is in the setup.

-type: Set-SendConnector -identity "foo-send-connector" -Port:587

## Ricoh Windows 10 1803

This article says it better than I can on how to setup a Ricoh Printer with Windows 10 v1803.

## WordPress Multiple Category Search

Where do I start? Forgot my rant on how the world operates and has chosen WordPress over so many other better CMS's...

Have an array in an URL like this: &foo=1,2,3,4

Take that array and search for all of them.

The OPERATOR => IN, is the includes.

Basically, we are trying to get a %like% sql statement.

if (isset($_GET['area']) && !empty($_GET['area']) && $_GET['area'] != 'all') {$propareaArray = explode(",", $_GET["area"]);$tax_query[] = array(
'taxonomy' => 'property_area',
'field' => 'slug',
//'terms' => $_GET['area'], //'terms' => array($proparea[0],$proparea[1]), 'terms' => array_values($propareaArray),
'operator' => 'IN'
);
}

NOTES:

Don't ask me why 'EXISTS' doesn't work. I think it should. If it did, I wouldn't have to go through this.

## Manage Printers In Windows 10

So, I'm late to the game on this one: printmanagement.msc

## Shared Mailbox Won't Disconnect From Outlook

Scenario

You are an administrator of an Exchange system. Through the ECP, you add yourself FULL-ACCESS to another mailbox account. The account naturally shows in your Outlook. You are finished with the account and no longer need access to it. Again, through the ECP, you remove yourself FULL-ACCESS. The account still shows in your Outlook. What gives?

You might be tempted to remove the FULL-ACCESS through the EMS with the following:

remove-MailboxPermission foo.user -user foo.user2 -AccessRights FullAccess

But that yields:

WARNING: An inherited access control entry has been specified: [Rights: CreateChild, Delete, ReadControl, WriteDacl, WriteOwner, ControlType: Allow]  and was ignored on object "CN=where,OU=ever,OU=city,OU=Users,DC=domain,DC=tld".

Description

The mailbox is inheriting FullAccess permissions and has explicit FullAccess permissions. So when you removed the explicit FullAccess permissions, it won't have any effect unless a Deny permission is added. The problem is that Exchange doesn't tell you it is doing this.

Solution

To fix this, simply clear the Deny permission:

remove-MailboxPermission foo.user -user foo.user2 -AccessRights FullAccess -Deny

NOTES:

I've must have run into this before as I already have this post: http://www.daknetworks.com/blog/404-remove-mailbox-permissions-that-are-not-inherited

## ColdFusion Access

The access page for ColdFusion:

C:\ColdFusion10\cfusion\lib\neo-security.xml

• -change 'true' to 'false'
• -restart the ColdFusion application server.

Once you access the CFIDE, you can change the email settings there and test them as you save the settings.

Any undelivered emails will show in:
C:\ColdFusion10\cfusion\Mail\Undelivr

You simply drop them back into the spool directory and ColdFusion will send them:
C:\ColdFusion10\cfusion\Mail\Spool

## SuperMicro IKVM | Remote Console

So the IKVM/Remote-Console doesn't work with Java 8 (aka jre1.8.0_171). Apparently, this is because starting with JAVA-8 any JAR signed with an MD5 hash will no longer be considered trusted. There are instructions to workaround the new JAVA limits but why bother.

### GET THE SERVER IKVM INFO

If you can connect to the SUPERMICRO server, when you try to launch the CONSOLE-REDIRECT, it will download a LAUNCH.JNLP file.

• -open the LAUNCH.JNLP file with NOTEPAD.
• -at the bottom, it will have all the parameters neededd.

### RUN IKVM WITH PARAMETERS

• (ie: "C:\Program Files (x86)\SUPERMICRO\IPMIView\iKVM.jar" 10.7.14.8 ADMIN PASSWORD null 5900 623 0 0)

## Cloning Disks

Cloning disk can be in many ways. A following is a list of some of the ways:

## Move Wordpress Subdomain

Creating a new web site in WordPress. Doing so, I create the web site at a subdomain such as: new.foowebsite.tld

After the web site is up to client standards, we change the dns at the name servers.

Now we have little squares where pictures once were. The pictures are coming from the CSS but only strange characters show.

Here's how to fix.

### 1- change in the sql database:

-use the following as a guide. Be sure to change "wp_" with the prefix of your database "fooprefix_".

UPDATE wp_options SET option_value = replace(option_value,'http://old.url.tld','https://www.newurl.tld') WHERE option_name ='home' OR option_name ='siteurl';
UPDATE wp_posts SET guid = replace(guid,'http://old.url.tld','https://www.newurl.tld');
UPDATE wp_posts SET post_content = replace(post_content,'http://old.url.tld','https://www.newurl.tld');
UPDATE wp_postmeta SET meta_value = replace(meta_value,'http://old.url.tld','https://www.newurl.tld');

This can be used to go from http to https as well. Or to go to an entirely different domain name.

### 2- change in the file names:

But that doesn't change the files. If you are a sysadmin, you can use grep. Also WordPress has some built in functionality if you ssh into the server.

First, test:

wp search-replace 'http://old.url.tld' 'https://www.newurl.com' --dry-run

Then run:

wp search-replace 'http://old.url.tld' 'https://www.newurl.com'

### 3- check the wp-config.php

Sometimes the site is hardcoded into the wp-config.php file. Check it to make sure it is correct. The hard coded line will typically be the last lines.

NOTES:

-here is the long version: https://codex.wordpress.org/Moving_WordPress

## Add New Domain Email Address to All Mailboxes in Exchange 2013

Lets say that your Exchange 2013 has multiple domains from various companies over the years:

• @company1.tld
• @company2.tld
• @company3.tld

Some mailboxes have @company1.tld email addresses but not all mailboxes have @company1.tld email addresses.

A decision has been made that everyone without an @company1.tld email address needs to have one. Or you are staging for a domain change or company merger of some type.

How do you find the mailboxes without @company1.tld and then add an @company1.tld email address without changing the current email address?

Here's how:

Get-Mailbox -Filter {EmailAddresses -notlike "*company1.tld"} |ForEach {set-mailbox $_.samaccountname -EmailAddresses @{Add=$_.samaccountname+"@company1.tld"}}

Boom.

## DNS Scavenging

First it is important to note that the dns record is owned by the node or individual computer. The dns record is not owned by the dns server. The dns server only keeps a record of the individual dns records. Kinda strange, right?

What often happens is that the dns record changes on the individual computer but the dns server is not updated. When a query is run against the dns server, the record is incorrect because it was not updated.

Secondly, there are 2 server roles here that work together; DNS and DHCP.

Thirdly, the lease-time should be set to double the refresh-rate.

Let's begin by starting with the DNS server:

• -right-click on the server-name.
• -click SET-AGING-SCAVENGING-FOR-ALL-ZONES.
• -checkmark "Scavenge stale resource records".
• -set both the no-refresh and the refresh interval to: 2-days
• -click OK
• -click "Apply these settings to existing..."
• -click OK

Great! You are on your way!

Let's move to the the DHCP server:

• -right-click on each dhcp zone.
• -click PROPERTIES.
• -set the dhcp-lease-time to: 4 days
• -click the DNS tab (at the top).
• -checkmark "Enable DNS Dynamic Updates..."
• -bullet "Always Dynamically Update DNS"
• -checkmark "Discard A and PTR records..."
• -checkmark "Dynamically Update DNS Records..."

Awesome! Almost finished. Now the second part on the DHCP server. This will allow the DHCP server to update the DNS server:

• -right-click on IPV4.
• -click PROPERTIES.
• -click ADVANCED tab (at the top).
• -click CREDENTIALS button

Finally, let's move back the DNS server:

• -right-click on the server-name.
• -click ADVANCED tab (at the top).
• -checkmark "Enabled Automatic Scavanging of Stale Records"
• -set the scavenging interval to: 1-day.

You're done!

BONUS

If you have more than one DHCP server (for example, mulitple locations):

• -find the built-in group, DnsUpdateProxy
• -add the DHCP servers from all locations.

## Find User's OU

You know Joel in Sales. But you don't remember Joel's last name (because you've been staring at names all week) and you don't know Joel's OU.

Here's how to find Joel:

get-aduser -filter * |select samaccountname |findstr /i joel

This will bring up all the Joel's in the domain. Hopefully you can narrow it down from here.

Now to find Joel's OU in the details of his record:

This will show the "distinguishedname" and allow you to narrow down the OU.

If you really want to see this properly in one line, we need to use the "canonicalname" and it would be like this:

get-aduser -filter * -Properties Canonicalname |select samaccountname,canonicalname |fl |findstr /i joel

## Dell Bios Upgrade Command Line

Here's how to upgrade the bios for Dell Latitude/Precision laptop if from remote:

• -click START > RUN > CMD
• -type: c:\drivers\bios\Latitude_5X80_Precision_3520_1.9.3.exe /s /r
"/s" is silent "/r" is reboot
• "/f" is force if the battery is not present.

And if the battery is not present in the Dell Latitude/Precision laptop:

• -type: c:\drivers\bios\Latitude_5X80_Precision_3520_1.9.3.exe /forceit
"/forceit" is force if the battery is not present.

Usually I schedule a restart with some network tools I have. But in this case, I can remotely access the system via command-line/powershell but my network tools are not working. Probably because it needs a reboot after installing some updates.

Here's how to schedule a reboot with command line/powershell (works in either):

• -click START > RUN
• -type: cmd (or type: powershell)
• -click OK
• -type: schtasks /create /sc once /tn restart /tr “shutdown -r -f “”restart””” /st 13:00 /RU system
Where "/st" is the time in 24H clock and "/ru" is necessary to run even if the user is logged in or not.

## Core i7 6500u Dell Inpiron 5559

Core i7 6500u Dell Inpiron 5559 should be a good fast processor. The laptop was dreadfully slow. Something had to be wrong.

• -hit CTRL+ALT_DEL
• -click PERFORMANCE tab
• -click CPU (on the left-hand side)

You will notice the SPEED to around 0.39GHz. Hmmm... seems like something is throttling the CPU.

### BIOS Settings

I tried to fix some Bios Settings:

• c-states = off
• intel speedstep = off
• intel turboboost = off

Same result. Hmmm.... there must be some settings not being shown in the Bios that can be adjusted.

### ThrottleStop

Here's how to fix (as shown in my really edited picture below):

• 1-click LIMITS (on the right-hand side)
• 2-this will show you exactly why the throttle is happening. The culprit being BD_PROCHOT.
• 3-uncheck BD_PROCHOT (on the left-hand side)
• 4-checkmark DISABLE-TURBO
• 5-do NOT turn on SPEEDSTEP
• 5-do NOT turn on SPEED-SHIFT-EPP (if on, it will have a green SST "speed shift technology".)
(you can change the number next to SPEED-SHIFT and set it to zero, just delete the number and type over it)

You will notice the SPEED to around 2.49GHz and the speed is noticably faster.

### Schedul to Auto Start

• -start TASK-SCHEDULER using the basic scheduler.
• -open the properties of the task.
• -start THROTTLESTOP on startup whether someone is logged in or not.
• -change the user to be SYSTEM.
• -since THROTTLESTOP doesn't have to stay running, you can close it automatically. Find the THROTTLESTOP.INI file in the THROTTLESTOP directory/folder, open with text editor and change "DCExitTime" to the number of seconds to remain open, say 5 seconds.

### Final Thoughts

There are reasons why this is happening. In the end, buy business class hardware (Dell Latitude/Precision; Lenovo ThinkPads, etc) that have more options in the BIOS.

Intel-Adaptive-Thermal-Monitor might be the actual culprit. The issue is that there is no option to turn off in the BIOS.

NOTES:

## Exchange Distribution Group Members

Here's how to blank out all members in a distribution group:

Update-DistributionGroupMember foo.group -Members $null Here's how to update the members in a distribution group: Update-DistributionGroupMember rochester.hills -Members foo.user1, foo.user2, foo.user3 If you need to add a member to the group: add-DistributionGroupMember foo.group -member foo.user If you need to remove a member from the group: removeDistributionGroupMember foo.group -member foo.user If you need to adjust the list, do so in Excel, Word, Notepad, etc. Here's how to add a Dynamic Distribution Group that contains all emails of a certain Organizational Unit (OU) in Active Directory (AD): New-DynamicDistributionGroup -Name "foo.group.dynamic" -OrganizationalUnit "Foo OU" -RecipientFilter {((RecipientTypeDetails -eq 'UserMailbox'))} There's probably a better way to do this. Here's how to see the members of a Dynamic Distribution Group:$foovariable = Get-DynamicDistributionGroup foo.dynamic.group
Get-Recipient -RecipientPreviewFilter $foovariable.RecipientFilter -OrganizationalUnit$foovariable.RecipientContainer

## Exchange 2013 Distribution Groups Allow Outside Email

First, find the groups you want to change and give us the group email name and the value:

or
• $get-MailboxFolderPermission foo.room:\calendar #### Add Permissions Afterwards, set the permissions for the calendar. This must be done at the calendar level: •$set-MailboxFolderPermission foo.room:\calendar -user Default -AccessRights Reviewer

To schedule the calendar in OUTLOOK,

• -click NEW > MEETING
• -click TO
• -select ALL-ROOMS
• -click the room required.
• -click RESOURCES (at bottom-left, to add the room to the RESOUCE area).
• -click the date and time you need.
• -click SEND

This will schedule the room for you, put the event on your personal calendar, put the event on the room calendar for everyone to see and manage if it is in use or not.

#### Everyone In Office To Add Events To A Shared Calendar

If everyone in the office is "playing nice" and if you just want the calendar to show, have people double-click on the calendar day to start an event and schedule a time, then set the calendar permissions to AUTHOR:

• $set-MailboxFolderPermission foo.room:\calendar -user Default -AccessRights Author #### NOTES: -REVIEWER role is the following: (the "-" is not allowed) ReadItems FolderVisible -CreateItems -EditOwnedItems -EditAllItems -CreateSubfolders -DeleteOwnedItems -DeleteAllItems -FolderOwner -FolderContact -AUTHOR role is the following: (the "-" is not allowed) ReadItems FolderVisible CreateItems EditOwnedItem DeleteOwnedItemss -EditAllItems -CreateSubfolders -DeleteAllItems -FolderOwner -FolderContact More at: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd298062(v=exchg.150).aspx ## Can't Scan From Ricoh Printer After Update | Can't Scan From Savin Printer After Update Your scanning used to work from the Ricoh/Savin. It used to go right into a folder you had setup. Then the computer updated itself in the Fall/Winter of 2018 or early 2018. Now when you try to scan, it doesn't work. This is because the computer updated to Windows 10 v1709 (aka Fall Creators Update). In this update, a change was made so that your computer can no longer talk to the Ricoh/Savin scanner. The update took away a communication protocol called SMBv1. The correct fix is to change the way the scanner talks to the computer and use a newer communication protocol. In lieu of making those changes, you can re-enable SMBv1: • -click START > RUN • -type: CMD • -click OK • -type: dism /online /enable-feature /featurename:smb1protocol The same is true for disabling: • -type: dism /online /disable-feature /featurename:smb1protocol ## Fix Office 2016 For 32-bit (x86) Office 2013 installed in 32-bit Windows using Click-To-Run: • "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office 15\ClientX86\OfficeClickToRun.exe" scenario=Repair platform=x86 culture=en-us For 32-bit (x86) Office 2013 installed in 64-bit Windows using Click-To-Run: • "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office 15\ClientX64\OfficeClickToRun.exe" scenario=Repair platform=x86 culture=en-us For 64-bit (x64) Office 2013 installed in 64-bit Windows using Click-To-Run: • "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office 15\ClientX64\OfficeClickToRun.exe" scenario=Repair platform=x64 culture=en-us For Office 2013 installed using traditional MSI method: • "C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\OFFICE15\Office Setup Controller\Setup.exe" ## Outlook Rules / Exchange 2013 Rules / Inbox Rules For Mail You can see INBOX rules every mailbox: GET:$get-InboxRule -mailbox foo.user

You will get something like:
Name                          Enabled                       Priority                      RuleIdentity
----                          -------                       --------                      ------------
foo.bar.rule                  True                          1                             6404806255763783681

Of course, you can see the details by:

## Get Computer Information Via Command Line - WMIC

I spent some time in compuer maintenance. This is thousands of computers across multiple locations on the globe. If I have to physically visit a computer, I've lost. The goal is to be able to provide network administration to all computers without ever having to physically visit on-site.

Because of this goal, gathering information is important.

WMIC is one tool for this. Here are some nice cheatsheet items:

Get the video card information/display-adapter information:
wmic path win32_VideoController get name

Get the video card driver:
wmic path win32_VideoController get driverVersion

Get the motherboard information:
wmic baseboard get product

Get the onboard devices:
wmic onboarddevice get description

Get the serial number in the bios:
wmic bios get serialnumber

Get the bios version:
wmic bios get smbiosbiosversion

Love it!

## Dropbox See What Computer Is Making Chages

There are three areas that we need to look at to see what computer is making changes. This is in the online web site version.

In the RECENT area:

• -click the ELIPSES (the dots next to the title).
• -click the VERSION-HISTORY.
• -hover over the word DESKTOP. It will show the name of the computer that made the change.

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